A Second Law
The big finish! The second law of thermodynamics explains that it is impossible to have a cyclic (repeating) process that converts heat completely into work. It is also impossible to have a process that transfers heat from cool objects to warm objects without using work.
In English: that first part of the law says no reaction is 100% efficient. Some amount of energy in a reaction is always lost to heat. Also, a system can not convert all of its energy to working energy.
The second part of the law is more obvious. A cold body can't heat up a warm body. Heat naturally wants to flow from warmer to cooler areas. Heat wants to flow and spread out to areas with less heat. If heat is going to move from cooler to warmer areas, it is going against what is “natural”, so the system must put in some work for it to happen.
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