( ) Amphibia ɡ ݡ ڡ . refresh [] refresh []. : ( refresh Anura) Salamandra ( refresh Caudata Urodela) ǡ refresh Apoda Gymnophiona ( 1).
refresh refresh ɡ refresh . ӡ ڡ ڡ . chromatophores . . refresh . ( 2). secondary palate . refresh . ʡ .
refresh ʡ () ǡ ɺ refresh (23- 43) refresh urostyle . refresh ա refresh refresh refresh . . . ɡ . . ҡ ڡ .
refresh . : . ݡ pulmonary arteries aortic arch carotid arteries. . . ( 3). .
ʡ . ( 4). () ɡ refresh . [] ɡ . ʡ . ɡ refresh () ȡ ( 5).
ʡ . .
refresh . ʡ refresh . refresh . Ρ ( 6). ɺ refresh ߡ Amniota. mucosa . ء . Jacobson . ʡ . ɡ . . . .
mesonephros Wolf. ɡ ȡ . ( ) ( ) . ( ) . mesovarium ( 8) ɡ ɡ Muller. . ̡ . .
ѻ Bidder . : . ɡ ѡ ѡ . refresh refresh . refresh ء ڡ ( Astylosternus robustus). ( ) refresh . : ڡ Ρ . refresh ڡ . ʡ . refresh refresh . refresh refresh refresh . () . ʡ refresh ɡ . refresh refresh spermatophores refresh . refresh ݡ .
ɡ . . refresh ӡ refresh . refresh ֡ refresh . [] metamorphosis ( 9): tadpoles ɡ refresh . . . ɡ refresh . ѡ ѡ . . ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) refresh . ɡ . : ( ) ( ) Labyrinthodontia ء Lissamphibia : Labyrinthodontia. ء . Lepospondylii ɡ . Lissamphibia ɡ . : Salientia . ѡ . : 1 Proanura ϡ . 2 Anura ɡ ѡ . Caudata . : 1 Urodela . 2 Apoda . .