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  1. #1
      Eiman
    Jul 2011
    -
    14,750






    : :





    . 20 .


    .







    .


    : :


    (Canonization ) . . . . .


    (Replacement )


    . . . . . . . .


    (mineralization ) .


    : :


    (Molds and Casts ) . ϡ . ȡ .
    .


    ( Imprints )


    . ԡ ѡ . ѡ . . .







    ( )

    (Fossil): Fossil .

    1.
    2. Taphonomy
    3.
    4.
    5.
    6. .
    :
    1- :
    Freezing Rhinoceroses

    Resins Amber ɡ (1)



    Petroleum oils Asphalt .
    .
    2- : ϡ Opal ʡ :

    Carbonization (2).


    Petrifaction Premineralized (3).



    Recrystalization . ɡ .
    Dehydrated . .

    Mold ( ) External mold Internal mold Steinkern .(4)



    Cost . Natural mold ( 5) ( 6) .


    .......

  2. #2

    Jan 2013
    6,984

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