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  1. #1
      Eiman
    Jul 2011
    -
    14,750

    : [1] . [2] . [3] .
    :
    1-
    :- .
    + .
    2-
    :- .
    ( .
    = + : [1] .
    [2]
    .
    : .

    .
    : ( : .
    : .
    : .
    : (H):

    .
    .
    .
    .
    :
    =
    H = H)
    ) H ((

    1 5 15 5 16 5 = 1000 ( = 1000
    .
    33 .
    = .

    1
    = 4.18 =
    4.18

    = 4.18
    : 4.

    : () 20.9 .

    :
    .
    :
    (1)
    { }
    (2)
    .
    (3)
    .
    :
    [1]
    .
    [2]
    .
    : :
    383.7 .
    C + O2 CO2 + 383.7
    = ( )
    383.7 +
    = + () = - 383.7 :
    C + O2 CO2, = - 383.7 K j

    : :
    2 51.9 .
    H2 + I2 2HI + (-51.9
    )
    =
    (- 51.9 ) +
    = + = + 51.9 :
    H2 + I2 2HI, = + 51.9 K j
    = 51.9 = 25.95 2


    H <

    H >
    :
    .
    H H + Cl Cl 2 H Cl
    :
    .
    :
    [1]
    . ( )
    [2]
    .
    [3]
    . {
    [4]
    . {
    [5]
    :- .
    [6]
    :- .
    :-
    [1]
    .
    [2]
    .
    [3]
    .
    [4]
    :
    =
    .
    :
    2 . :-
    (
    H2 =435 Cl2 =240 HCl =430 )

    :
    H2 + Cl2 2HCl
    H H + Cl Cl 2 (HCl)
    2 430 240 + 435
    -860 + 675
    H =
    .
    = 675 + (-860)
    = - 185

    H2 + Cl2 2HCl, = - 185 K j
    = -185 = -92.5
    2
    :
    H :
    CH4 + Cl2 CH3Cl + HCl
    . .
    58
    Cl Cl 104 CH3 H
    84
    CH3 Cl 103 H Cl
    :
    H
    |

    H
    |

    +H Cl H C Cl + Cl Cl
    H C H
    |
    H |
    H

    103 + 84 58 + 104
    - 187 + 162
    H = 162 + (- 187)
    = - 25
    = 4.18
    = - 25 4.18 = - 104.5
    :
    :
    : .
    : :-
    [1]
    : { }
    :


    :
    [2] : ( ) { }
    :
    =
    :

    50 . 62.5 .
    .
    :
    =
    = -50 + 62.5 = + 12.5 .
    0.5 12.5 .
    1 .
    () = 1 12.5 = + 25
    0.5
    :
    :

    NaOH +
    NaOH(aq)
    NaOH(s) +
    NaOH(aq)
    NH4NO3 (aq)
    NH4NO3 (s) +
    NH4NO3 (s) +
    NH4NO3 (aq)
    : (H2O) .
    :
    { }
    CuSO4(s) + Cu2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) = -57 K.J
    { }
    CuSO4(s).5H2O + Cu2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) = 10 K.J
    :
    [1]

    ɡ
    .
    [2]

    .

    (1):
    1000 3
    12 5 .
    :
    =
    = 1000 4.18 12= 50160
    = 50.16
    (2):
    50 .
    10 :-
    [H = 1, O = 16, Na = 23]
    : [NaOH] = 23 + 16 + 1 = 40
    40 50
    10
    ) 10 NaOH = 10 50 = 12.5
    40

    .......

  2. #2

    Jan 2013
    6,984

    :



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