: , . ֡ ֡ 500 25 .

.
. Astronomical Unit 150 150 . 58 0.38 .

. ( = ) 9.5 .(9.5 X 10 12 ). . 3.26 .

:

. . Geocentric ϡ . .

ǡ . . . .

. ѡ (1473 1543) . . 24 . Heliocentric . : On the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres . 1543 . ! . .

(1546 1601) . .
. ȡ 1609 . . . Ⱥ . . " ". ѡ . . The Starry Messenger 1610 1600 . 1632 Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Word System. . 1633 . .

(1571 1630 ) . 1600 . . 1601 . .. . .

ɡ . . Perihelion Aphelion :" () "

. : " ."



ɡ . :" ". The Harmony of The World 1919. (1643 1727 ) . . : ӡ .
. . .

. ӡ -2006 . ڡ .