. 1960 . .


Ecology, Environmental Health

Ecology . .

. biosphere ( ) ecosystems . ecosystem , ( ) .

: , , , . ( ) .

: .

: ( ) Herbivores ( ) , Carnivores ( ) .

: decomposer .

. .

. .

man-made toxic agents .

.

.

:-

1- .

2- .

3- .



:-

. . . ɡ ɡ .

. . .

. emphysema . mesothelioma asbestos . Vinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride ( ӡ ɡ ȡ ʡ outo seatcovers ) .

6000 1000 200 . .