֡ . ʡ ʡ . ʡ

Wegener " " Continental Drift Theory
1922. Mantle thermal Convection Currents ҡ 1928 ɡ . ʡ . ȡ " " Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ϡ ϡ . 1960 ɡ ǡ
ʡ ǡ Plate Tectonics.
ɡ
. ȡ ǡ
. ɡ
. ֡
Plates ɡ
ɡ . ߡ ǡ
.
ɡ
ֺ
ɺ ͡
.

֡
ɺ ȡ ǡ
. ǡ
ʡ . :
1.
2. ݡ ȡ
ǡ ɿ
3. ѿ
4. .

֡
Catastrophism. ӡ ǡ
Biblical Flood
. ѡ ֺ
͡ ˺
ɡ .
ɡ
Uniformitarionism
Uniformatrian Principle.
James Hatton 1785
: " ". ɡ
֡ ʡ ֡
ɡ ǡ ֡
.
ɡ ʡ ʡ ɡ
ɡ
. 1596 Abraham
Ortelius ǡ
. ǡ Thesaurus Geographicus.
ǡ .
ʡ ѡ
ڡ ʡ
.
֡ 200 ɡ ɡ
Pangaea ֺ ϡ
Panthass. ǡ ɡ ǡ .
Alexander Du Toit
̡
ʡ : Laurasia
Gondwana Land
. ѡ .
Holms . ɡ
֡ . ɡ ѡ
ʡ
ʡ ɡ ɡ ֺ
ѡ
ɡ ߡ .
ɡ ɡ
ϡ ǡ
ʡ 1930
ɡ Greenland.
ǡ Ǻ
ء ˡ ɡ
ɡ .

ɡ :
Lithosphere Mantle Core.
1.
ɡ
. ݡ :
.
:
1- ɡ ɡ ȡ ȡ
ǡ
Sial. 2.8 .
40 .
2- ɡ ɡ ȡ ȡ
ǡ
Sima. 3.25 ʡ . 10 .

.
ɡ ǡ . 60 90 . ͡ ɡ . ɡ Ductile . 100 125 ʺ 70 100 ѡ .
2.
ɡ ȡ ɺ ɡ . ͡ ɡ Ѻ ɡ ɺ Asthnosphere. 350 . ͡ ɡ 2883 . ɡ ͡ ɡ .
3.
:
. : ɡ . 2257 .
. : ɡ . 1231 .

֡ ɡ
Ѻ
ɡ ѡ
.



֡
ɡ . ߡ ɡ :
Pacific Plate Eurasia Plate
Africa Plate North
America Plate South America Plate Australia-India Plate Arabia Plate Iran Plate.
ȡ ء
. ء : Nazca Plate ɺ Cocos Plate ǡ . ء : . ʡ : ɡ ɡ . ͡ ʡ 70 80
100 150 . ֡
Ǻ
͡ .
ɡ ɡ
ڡ .
ʡ ǡ
:
( 44) ǡ ǡ
ɡ ( 45)

( 46). ǡ
Tectonic Boundaries : ɡ
ɡ .
1. ɡ ǡ Diverging Plate Boundaries. ۡ ǡ Basaltic ͡ ۡ
ϡ .
Ϻ Lava ɡ
͡ .
ǡ Sea Floor Spreading .
ɡ ɺ
ɡ .
ɡ ɡ ɡ ɺ ͡ ǡ 600 ɡ ѡ . ͡ . ɡ ѡ .
( 44) ɡ Ϻ ɡ Mid-Oceanic Ridges. ɡ ɺ ֡ . 65 . ء ڡ 4500 . ڡ ӡ .
ǡ .
ɡ ɡ ͺ
ϡ ɡ ɡ .
ʡ ɡ
ɡ ϡ ǡ
ޡ .
ޡ
Spreading Centers. ɺ
ϡ
Ѻ 4.4 . ɡ
ɡ ɡ
. Mid-Atlantic Ridge ɺ ء ݡ

. ɡ ɡ ɡ ʡ .