( ( Components of Ecosystem

: (community ) .
( )

( )

.
( Habitat )

:
Ý- ( Biotic Components )

( )
:
1- ( Producers ) .
2- ( Consumers ) ( Autotrophs ) ( Heterotrophs ) [ .
3- ( Decomposers )

ȝ- ( Abiotic components ) :
1-
2-
3-
4-
( Types of Ecosystems )


[ Open system]

( )
[ Closed Ecosystem ]




.

Food Chain Food

.
The Producer trophic level Herbivores The primary consumer level Carnivores The tertiary consumer level


( )

( )

(
)

Food web
( )

Ecological pyramids


Type of ecosystems of the world

Aquatic biomes
1 Oceans
( )

Intertidal Zone
O2
neric Zone
180
Oleanic Zone

2
Streams and Rivers

Lakes and Ponds

Estuaries

Terrestrial Ecosystems
1 Tundra
( ) .
2 Forests

Northern coniferous forests
[ 50 60 ]
Deciduous forests

Tropical rain forests





Mediterranean forests

3 Grasslands
Temperate Grasslands
250 750
( )Savannah
1250
4 Deserts
250
[ ] [ ] Home range

[ ]
Levels of biodiversity Animals

: .
: .

1 Alpha diversity Species richness
2 Beta diversity
3 Gamma diversity ( )
Genetic diversity



.
Species diversity


Ecosystem diversity

.



Relationships between organisms and ecosystems

:

[ ]
1
.
2
.
3
.
4
.
5
.





Tolerance Range of Species to A biotic Factors

( Existence ) ( Abundance )
( Distribution ) ( ) (
( The Law of Tolerance )
(Tolerance Range ) ( Optimum Range )
( Ecological Amplitude )

( Differences in their genetic make up )


Biodiversity in hydro-ecosystems


.
1 Fresh Water
[ 0 4% ]
2 Marine [ 20 40% ]
3 Saline [ 40 100 % ]

4 H- Per saline
[ 100 % ]





( ( Components of Ecosystem

: (community ) .
( )

( )

.
( Habitat )

:
Ý- ( Biotic Components )

( )
:
1- ( Producers ) .
2- ( Consumers ) ( Autotrophs ) ( Heterotrophs ) [ .
3- ( Decomposers )

ȝ- ( Abiotic components ) :
1-
2-
3-
4-
( Types of Ecosystems )


[ Open system]

( )
[ Closed Ecosystem ]




.

Food Chain Food

.
The Producer trophic level Herbivores The primary consumer level Carnivores The tertiary consumer level


( )

( )

(
)

Food web
( )

Ecological pyramids


Type of ecosystems of the world

Aquatic biomes
1 Oceans
( )

Intertidal Zone
O2
neric Zone
180
Oleanic Zone

2
Streams and Rivers

Lakes and Ponds

Estuaries

Terrestrial Ecosystems
1 Tundra
( ) .
2 Forests

Northern coniferous forests
[ 50 60 ]
Deciduous forests

Tropical rain forests





Mediterranean forests

3 Grasslands
Temperate Grasslands
250 750
( )Savannah
1250
4 Deserts
250
[ ] [ ] Home range

[ ]
Levels of biodiversity Animals

: .
: .

1 Alpha diversity Species richness
2 Beta diversity
3 Gamma diversity ( )
Genetic diversity



.
Species diversity


Ecosystem diversity

.



Relationships between organisms and ecosystems

:

[ ]
1
.
2
.
3
.
4
.
5
.





Tolerance Range of Species to A biotic Factors

( Existence ) ( Abundance )
( Distribution ) ( ) (
( The Law of Tolerance )
(Tolerance Range ) ( Optimum Range )
( Ecological Amplitude )

( Differences in their genetic make up )


Biodiversity in hydro-ecosystems


.
1 Fresh Water
[ 0 4% ]
2 Marine [ 20 40% ]
3 Saline [ 40 100 % ]

4 H- Per saline
[ 100 % ]