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  1. #1
      Eiman
    Jul 2011
    -
    14,750


    :
    / client/server
    - peer-to-peer.
    server client.
    / 2000
    - . -ϡ ѡ

    01-
    .
    Computer resources ( Peripheral ) .
    :
    1- Centralized Computing
    2- Distributed Computing
    :
    Mainframe Dumb terminals

    Mainframe terminals
    Distributed Computing Distributed Processing .
    Protocol
    .

    :
    1- , .
    2- Adapter Network Interface Card .
    . .
    .
    : HUB .
    10 . .
    . .
    :
    .. .
    .
    .
    .
    . .

    ..

    Control Panel

    Network
    TCP/IP


    Properties


    A .
    .. :
    10.0.0.1
    10.0.0.2
    10.0.0.3
    Subnet Mask .
    .
    .. .
    .
    WinGate .

    www.download.com
    Proxy Server Proxy + .
    . . .
    .
    ..

    Tools ---> Internet Options
    .
    .
    .
    .
    :
    ..
    .. .
    .. .
    ..
    ..

    :
    1) Internet Protocol IP
    2)
    Internet Control Message Protocol ICMP
    3)
    Address Resolution Protocol ARP
    4)
    Reverse Address Resolution Protocol RARP
    :
    : Internet Protocol IP :
    .
    .
    .
    .
    .
    : Ͽ
    : ɿ
    :
    logical address
    : .
    IP
    Address .
    segments
    packets .
    .
    .
    router
    .


















    :
    version:

    header length:
    :

    Priority and type of service

    Total length

    Identification
    .
    flags

    frag offset

    .
    Time to live
    .

    .

    protocol


    header checksum

    IP Source IP address
    IP destination IP address
    Options

    Data
    :
    1)
    Internet Control Message Protocol ICMP
    2)
    Address Resolution Protocol ARP
    3)
    Reverse Address Resolution Protocol RARP





    1. LANs
    2. MANs
    3. WANs
    4.
    LAN
    MAN MAN LANs
    WANs ȿ
    Arpanet 1990 NSF 1991 LAN / MAN / WAN


    Network Pus Network Ring Network Star
    Network Pus
    CSMA/CD ...







    Pus Coaxia1





    Network Ring
    ....











    Network Star

    Hup .



















    .. 100 M
    Header
    Data
    Trailer


    Header


    Data

    Trailer
    Data CRC


    ISO OSI ..... OSI
    1 Physical ... 7 1 Physical 1 Physical 7 Application

    Application ...... Directory Servies Active Directory
    Presentation ...
    Session ..... ...
    Transport .....
    Network ..... Traffic Load IP
    Data Link ..... Physical
    Physical ..... 802.3 IEEE 802.5
    .......

  2. #2

    Nov 2013
    557

    DoDo
    ..............................



  3. #3
    Super Moderator
    Mar 2012
    11,190




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