. . : . .


refresh


.
:
- - .
:
.
:
1500 .
.

1- :
.
2- :
.
3- :
.
4- :
.
5- :
2 2 .
6- :
.
7- :
.

:
1 - .
2 - .
3 - .
4 - .
5 - .

:
1- .
2 - .
3- .
4 - .
5 - .
6 -

:-
refresh


The Kidney




:


130-170
13
1.5 ( nephron)





1. urea .
2. .
3. (7.4 = PH) ϡ .
4.
o Renin .
o .
o () () .
o Erythropoetin .

:-
refresh


-

. . . hypercalciuria . symbiotic bacteria . .



ʿ


calcium oxalate . :


pH ( )
.
. .

( 1). 70% 80% hyperoxaluria ( ) hyperuricosuria hypocitraturia .

(1)






( )


( )
( )

Struvite
(
crystals of magnesium ammonium phosphate)

Cystine
( )

( )

. pH .


ȿ



Dent's disease - . . .


o
. . . . .
o Crystallization Inhibitors
. citrate . .
o .
. . . .
o
( ) . .

. pH 8.0 . magnesium ammonium phosphate . struvite .

. . lithotripsy .


̿

.







24 creatinine .
Cystinuria
. . penicillamine tiopronin . captopril .


. . ( 800 ) . . ( ) . .

( ) natriuresis ( ) . ( 300 250 4 ) . 100 mEq .

thiazide . 24 . . hypokalemia .

hyperparathyroidism ( ) . ( ) nephrocalcinosis ( ) . ().

hypocitraturia
. potassium citrate . . 24 . pH 6.5 7.0 .


. () . . pyridoxine .

( )
allopurinol . purine ( ) ( ...) .


thiazides allopurinol . . () .

. . extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy () percutaneous nephrolithotomy ureteroscopy laser lithotripsy .