(Cryptorchidism) " " (Undescended testis) ( ) ( Scrotum) .
% 2- 5 % . , 37 . .
, . , .











(Abdominal cavity) . , (groin) ( ) .
, . ǡ .
ȿ
. , . , . ɡ , .
- - , .
:

  • (Wandering testicle): ߡ ǡ , .


  • (Testicle rises): ɡ ǡ .

, .






ݡ . , , , ǡ ǡ .
(Low birth weight - LBW) (Preterm birth) . .
:

  • (Low birth weight - LBW)
  • (Preterm birth)
  • (Family history)

, " " (Down syndrome) .
ѡ (Diabetes) (Diabetes type1) (Diabetes type2) (Gestational diabetes) .







, . ɡ . 3 4 , .
ϡ ǡ . .
:

  • : ( - Sperm). . .
  • : , , .

:

  • (Testicular torsion): , . . . .
  • (): , (Pubic bone).
  • (Inguinal hernia): . , .







ɡ ǡ . . , . ( ), (Urologist) . 10% .
, :

  • ( / - Ultrasound)
  • (Magnetic resonance imaging - MRI)
  • (Laparoscopy)

:
, . ڡ , . ȡ " " (Intersex).
(Intersexuality) ǡ :

  • ( - Ovaries)







. , .
:
. ɡ ɡ , (Stitch). ɡ ɡ ( ).
, . 3- 6 . .
, , . ʡ .
, .
, , .
:

  • ()

(Human chorionic gonadotropin HCG). , . ( ).
:
ɡ , . - .
, ( Endocrinologist) , .