ǿ
.

: .

:
1- .
2 - .
:
:
, :
, . , ( 10%) .
, . , .

:

. .



(Weathering/Altration):


ɡ ɡ ͡ ɡ .
ʡ ɡ : .


(Mechanical or Physical Weathering):

ɡ ɡ ɡ : (.. / ;W.K.Hamblin ../ ;E.H.Christiansen 2001).
: (Granular Disintegration) (Joint-block Separation) (Exfoliation) (Splitting)...


:

1- (Temperature Change) ( ȡ ) ѡ ( 1996 1998) ( / ;Roger Coque 1998) ɡ .
2 - (Frost Action): (. ɺ 1997) ( . / ;R.Coque 1998) ( 1996 1998) .
ɡ ʡ - - ѡ .


(Chemical Weathering):

( ) ɡ .
( ) : (Hydrolysis) (Solution) (Oxydation).


:

- (Regolith): ɡ ֡ (Discontunous) ɡ ( =BedRock) : ɡ ɡ .
- (Soil): ɡ ɡ ɡ (./ ,M.Campy ../ ;J.J.Macaire 1989).
- 1- : ɡ ɡ ɡ : (Leaching) (Eluviation) (Illuviation) (Calcification) (Salinisation) ( 1987).
- - (Profile) (Horizons) ѡ : (HorizonA)A (HorizonB) B (HorizonC)C. ϡ ( 1998).
- 2 - : ɡ ɡ : ( = (Chernozem (Rendzinas) ɡ Utisols ɺ Spodosols ( 1987).
{ }: - : { } .


:

ɡ :
1 - :
- (Frost Action): - - ɡ 10% 15 2 - - ɡ (./ R.Coque 1998).
- : (Water Weathering/ Hydroclastie) (Haloclastie/Salt Weathering) ѡ : - - (Montmorillonite) %60 (Splitting) ( ) (Desquamation) (Polygonation) (./ R.Coque 1998).
2 - :
( ) - ( ): ( ) ǡ :
- (Hydrolysis): ѡ -OH H+ ѡ ѡ ߡ (Plagioclase) - ѡ - :
+ + >>>>> +
- (Solution): - - (Ions) .
ɡ ( 1987).


{ }:

ɡ