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  1. #1
      Eiman
    Jul 2011
    -
    14,750

    .

    1820: .
    1831: , .
    1864: .
    1888: . .
    1891: .
    1893: .
    1894: .
    2007: 60 40%.








    James Clerk Maxwell :

    :
    Jc
    Jd



    I=v\R v R
    A



    P=V*I
    I = P\V P (WATT)


    . 1831 .
    (..) .
    .




    .
    . ɡ ɡ . (). (). () (3exp8 /) 300000 /.

    C =1/ ((ε.μ) (1/2)) = 3 exp8

    (I)

    ( )
    . I= ε. (Eexp2). c

    (E) (B).

    . . .

    :

    F= P/

    P P :

    P= (u) / c

    u


    :





    . . .

    , ɔ , ʡ . . ( ), , , ɡ 1943 . . ɡ " ".




    ɡ : " С ѡ "..! " ".
    ݡ ѡ ɡ .. " " ͡ . ǡ ӡ .
    " " 1856 ޡ ɡ "" ʡ "" ɡ .

    "" .. " " "" ǡ : " ʡ ."

    "" "" ʡ ɡ "" "" ޡ "" "" "" "" "" "" ϡ "" () ѡ ǡ .




    1887 "" ϡ "" "".. "" .


    1899 "" 36 200 " " ɡ ()..
    1895 "" " Westinghouse" ǡ "".
    "" ɡ ڡ "" ͡ "" .. 45 !.
    !




    "" ӡ ɡ 17 "" ʡ ѡ 1909 "" "" ""!.
    "" 1916 "" !.. "" .



    1898 "" ( ) ɡ ʡ ϡ .
    "" ѡ ϡ ʡ ݡ ǡ !





    "- "

    "" 1943 "" "".. "" .. ɡ ɡ " " " " 1965.
    "" 700 ڡ 1943 ޡ .

    "" "" "" " " "".. "" .

    "" " " ʡ "" ѡ !.. 2002 " " !.

    (: Electromagnetic radiation) (EMR) . . ( ): . ɡ .

    1864 () . . - ǡ . . . ɡ .

    1887 .
    1901 Guglielmo Marconi ɡ .



    . ( )

    k ɡ B ϡ E ϡ ().

    : .
    :

    , , . , .
    299796 186284 ɡ .

    , . ̡ . ʡ . . . ɡ . ѡ . ѡ .


    E M .


    Max Planck 1900 . () E ( ) :
    E = h c /
    h ߡ
    c ( ).
    :
    E = h ν
    ν .
    ( ):
    . ν= c
    c .


    :
    E = h ν
    νϡ h .
    500 .
    = 500. 10-9
    = 5. 10-7 :
    = (/ ) () = 3.108 (/ ) 5.10-7 () = 6.1014 (1/) = 6,6. 10-34 .
    = 6,6. 10-27 . = 3,9. 10-15 . (s. eV) ( . ) ȡ (.) .
    ߡ :
    h = E. = 3,9. 10-15 ( . ). 6.1014 (1/)= 2,3 500 32 . .
    32 . (




















    ( )


    3000



    :- 1- 220/15000
    2- 330 / 50
    3- 10
    4- 3.
    5-






















    1-
    2-
    3- (relay )
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    .......

  2. #2

    Jul 2011
    -
    15,678

    :

    Thank You Eiman
    refresh refresh refresh


  3. #3
      Eiman
    Jul 2011
    -
    14,750

    :

    .......

  4. #4

    Aug 2011
    2,847

    :

    Thank you so much


  5. #5

    Jul 2012
    5,302

    :





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