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  1. #1
      Eiman
    Jul 2011
    -
    14,750

    ǡ ɡ "" ɡ ɡ 94 .

    ɡ 15 (K = ޡ - 273 ).
    ɡ .

    ѡ .

    ϡ Hipparchus ɡ ڡ ݡ ( 2.5 ) .

    ѡ (4 ) ӡ ǡ ǡ 300,000 ɡ 10 (63,000 ) 1000 .



    ɡ 333,000 ֡ 100 8 % ӡ 8 % ɡ ɡ 1/80 (13 ) .

    Eta Carinae 100 150 ɺ ǡ . 150 ɡ ϡ Eddington ( ).

    300 ϡ ( ) . ǡ ǡ .

    93 ǡ 75 8.3 % ӡ 87 ǡ .

    ɡ .



    ֡ ( 90 % ) ( 10 %) ɡ . 1200 32 .



    ѡ ɡ ɡ . ɡ .



    90 % ǡ .

    " " ( "" ) .

    ӡ 5 % ( 1.5 - 109 ) ӡ 3000 50,000 ( 5800 ).

    ɡ ɡ 40 % 4.6 .

    . ɡ 10−14 ɡ 0.01 % ǡ 10−7 10−5 ɡ 50 .

    . ѡ . 1010 . ɡ ( ) . ѡ ϡ (13.7 ) .

    ɡ metallicity. . " " ѡ .

    ( )

    ɡ ҡ . ѡ " " ( ) ( Cetus) ɡ " " " ".

    0.4 ȡ ( 5 ǡ 99 % ( 150 ) 1.7 )

    2.25 ɡ ȡ ɡ ȡ ɡ .



    ( 0.8 10 ) ޡ ɡ M " " 100 . ʡ ͡ K. Al Debaran Arcturus . ( ) 10 % .

    ѡ ȡ . ʡ .

    ϡ . ء ݡ ǡ . ͡ Wolf-Rayet .





    ɡ ɡ ɡ M K B O. . L T ɡ " " ( ).



    . 10 ( ) ǡ 0.8 . ( 0.8 ) 13 ǡ ǡ 13 .



    ɡ ɡ ȡ ɡ ɡ zirconium .



    ѡ () . ޡ .



    ( ). . ( Procyon B 40 Eridani B) " " ( " " ). ӡ ȡ . ֡ 0.8 10 ɡ ϡ ǡ ɡ ʡ . ( " ." ) .



    ( 10 ) ʡ .

    ɡ ɡ . Betelgeuse Orion Antares Scorpius.

    . ɡ ȡ ʡ .

    ʡ .



    ϡ . ( ) ʡ . " " .

    ǡ . ɡ Kepler 1604 ( ) .

    1987 (SN 1987 a) Magellanic 170,000 .. 30 ֡ ١ .




    ǡ . .

    .

    Crab Nebula Taurus 1054 .



    ɡ ӡ 100 ȡ .

    ( ) . ѡ ѡ . . .



    ӡ ɡ ɡ ѡ ȡ .






    ѡ ֺ . Ǻ .

    Alpha Centauri Acrux Almach Albireo Mizar.



    ɡ ϡ ݡ ݡ Epsilon Lyrae Lyra.



    ǡ 200 . ɡ
    .......

  2. #2

    Aug 2011
    2,847




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