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الموضوع: ELECTROPHILIC ADDITION

  1. #1
    عضو ذهبي الصورة الرمزية عزمي الزبن
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Jul 2011
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    افتراضي ELECTROPHILIC ADDITION





    ELECTROPHILIC ADDITION


    Background

    Electrophilic addition happens in many of the reactions of compounds containing carbon-carbon double bonds - the alkenes.



    The structure of ethene



    We are going to start by looking at ethene, because it is the simplest molecule containing a carbon-carbon double bond. What is true of C=C in ethene will be equally true of C=C in more complicated alkenes.



    Ethene, C2H4, is often modelled as shown on the right. The double bond between the carbon atoms is, of course, two pairs of shared electrons. What the diagram doesn't show is that the two pairs aren't the same as each other.



    One of the pairs of electrons is held on the line between the two carbon nuclei as you would expect, but the other is held in a molecular orbital above and below the plane of the molecule. A molecular orbital is a region of space within the molecule where there is a high probability of finding a particular pair of electrons.



    In this diagram, the line between the two carbon atoms represents a normal bond - the pair of shared electrons lies in a molecular orbital on the line between the two nuclei where you would expect them to be. This sort of bond is called a sigma bond.



    The other pair of electrons is found somewhere in the shaded part above and below the plane of the molecule. This bond is called a pi bond. The electrons in the pi bond are free to move around anywhere in this shaded region and can move freely from one half to the other.


    The pi electrons are not as fully under the control of the carbon nuclei as the electrons in the sigma bond and, because they lie exposed above and below the rest of the molecule, they are relatively open to attack by other things.



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  2. #2
    مراقب عام الصورة الرمزية Eiman
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Jul 2011
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    افتراضي رد: ELECTROPHILIC ADDITION

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  3. #3
    عضو مميز الصورة الرمزية قمر بلحاج
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    Jul 2012
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    افتراضي رد: ELECTROPHILIC ADDITION

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