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: Nomenclature of Organic Compounds

  1. #1

    Jul 2011
    -
    15,678

    Nomenclature of Organic Compounds

    , . . , 1892 .

    : :
    1. Common System: acetic acid acetum.
    . .

    2. IUPAC System :
    international Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry IUPAC)) .
    .

    IUPAC
    :
    :
    ( Isomers ) :
    : IUPAC .
    : .

    IUPAC
    ( Saturated Hydrocarbons) .
    IUPAC
    IUPAC
    ( ).
    IUPAC Alkanes ( ) .

    1) : ( ) ane- .
    : C5H12 (CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3) Pentane Pent ane .
    IUPAC
    .




    Methane CH4
    Ethane CH3CH3
    Propane CH3CH2CH3
    Butane CH3CH2CH2CH3
    Pentane* CH3(CH2)3CH3
    Hexane CH3(CH2)4CH3
    Heptane CH3(CH2)5CH3
    Octane CH3(CH2)6CH3
    Nonane CH3(CH2)7CH3
    Decane** CH3(CH2)8CH3
    Undecane CH3(CH2)9CH3
    Dodecane CH3(CH2)10CH3
    Tridecane CH3(CH2)11CH3
    Tetradecane CH3(CH2)12CH3
    Pentadecane CH3(CH2)13CH3
    Eicosane CH3(CH2)18CH3


    *- .
    **- .

    :
    :
    C17H36 C16H34
    C19H40 C18H38

    :
    Heptadecane Hexadecane

    Nonadecane

    Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides
    IUPAC " " Haloalkanes
    :


  2. #2

    Jul 2011
    -
    15,678

    : Nomenclature of Organic Compounds

    :

    Chloroethane
    CH2ClCH3

    i2i- i2i- Iodopropane
    i2i- - i2i- i2i- Bromo -2- methylbutane

    .
    di-(), tri -( ) , tetra-( ) .... .

    Trifluoromethane

    CHF3

    i3,2,1,1i- i1,1,2,3i -tetrachloropropane
    CH2ClCHClCHCl2

    i1i- -i3,2i - - i4,2i-
    i1i- Bromo-2,3-diiodo-2,4-dimethylpentane


    , , , :

    IUPAC




    Chloroethane

    Ethyl chloride ()
    CH3CH2Cl

    i2i-
    i2i- Bromopropane

    Isopropyl bromide ()
    CH3CHBrCH3

    i2i- - i2i-
    i2i- Iodo -2- methylpropane

    *tert- butyl iodide
    (CH3)3Cl

    i1i- - i2i-
    i1i- Fluoro-2-methylprpane

    Isobutyl fluoride

    ( IUPAC ) .


  3. #3

    Jul 2011
    -
    15,678

    : Nomenclature of Organic Compounds

    Classes of Carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms
    ( ) , , :
    ) :Primary Carbon
    ,

    i2,1i .
    ,



    (i1i) (i3i) . , .


    ) Secondary Carbon:
    (i2i)


    ( i3,1i ) , .


    (i4,3,2i) .

    ) Tertiary Carbon:



    (i2i) , .
    (CH3)3Cl )


    (i2i) ( )
    .

    :
    -tert -tri , , secondary -di .


  4. #4

    Jul 2012
    5,302

    : Nomenclature of Organic Compounds

    Best Regards


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