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الموضوع: Figures Of Speech

  1. #1
    مراقب عام الصورة الرمزية Eiman
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    Jul 2011
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    افتراضي Figures Of Speech

    Introduction


    Idioms or figures of speech are combinations of words whose meaning cannot be determined by examination of the meanings of the words that make it up. Or, to put it another way, an idiom uses a number of words to represent a single object, person or concept. Unless you recognise when an idiom is being used you can easily misunderstand the meaning of a text. Modern translations, such as the NIV, use an equivalent figures of speech in English to translate many biblical idioms. More literal versions, particularly the King James Version, translate idioms word for word. It is the reader of the literal versions who needs to be most aware of the meanings of idioms


    Index


    Tropes: Figures which change the typical meaning of a word or words
    Metaplasmic Figures: Figures which movethe letters or syllables of a word from their typical places
    Figures Of Ommision: Figures which omit something --eg. a word, words,phrases,or clauses--from a sentence
    Figures Of Repetition - words : Figures which repeat one or move words
    Figures of Repetition - clauses and ideas: Figures which repeat a phrase, a clause or an idea
    Figures Of Unusual Word Order: Figures which alter the ordinary order of words or sentences
    Figures Of Thoughts: a miscellaneous group of figures which deal
    with emotional appeals and techniques of argument


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    Tropes

    Metaphor : The substitution of a word for a word whose meaning is close to the original word
    Metonymy : A noun is substituted for a noun in such a way that we substitute the cause of the thing of which we are speaking for the thing itself; this might be done in several ways: substituting the inventor for his invention, the container for the thing contained, an author for his work, the sign for the thing signified, the cause for the effect
    Synedoche : Substitution of part for whole, genus for species
    Irony : expressing a meaning directly contrary to that suggested by the words
    Metalepsis : A double metonymy in which an effect is represented by a remote cause
    Paradox : A seemingly self contradictory statement, which yet is shown to be true
    Oxymoron : A condensed paradox at the level of a phrase
    Anthimeria : The substitution of one part of speech for another; for instance, an adverb for a noun or a noun for an adverb
    Litotes : Deliberate understatement or denial of the contrary
    Hyperbole : Exaggerated or extravagant statement used to make a strong impression, but not intended to be taken literally

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    Metaplasmic Figures

    Prosthesis : Addition of letters to the beginning of a word
    Aphaersis : Omission of letters from the beginning of a word
    Epenthesis : Addition of letters to the middle of a word
    Syncope : Omission of letters from the middle of a word
    Paragoge : Addition of letters to the end of a word
    Apocope : Omission of letters from the end of a word
    Antisthecon : Substitution of a letter or sound for another within a word
    Metathesis : Transposition of a letter out of its normal order in a word


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    Figures of Omission

    Ellipsis :Omission of a word
    Zeugma : An ellipsis of a verb, in which one verb is used to govern several clauses
    Scesis Onamaton : Omission of the verb of a sentence
    Anapodoton : Omission of a clause
    Aposiopesis : Stopping a sentence in midcourse so that the statement is unfinished
    Occupatio : When the orator feigns and makes as though he would say nothing in some matter, when, notwithstanding he speaks most of all, or when he says something: in saying he will not say it


    Figures of Repetition - Words


    Epizeuxis :Emphatic repetition of a word with no other words between
    Polyptoton : Repetition of the same word or root in different grammatical functions or forms
    Antanaclasis : Repetition of a word, but in two different meanings
    Anaphora : Repetition of a word at the beginning of a clause, line, or sentence
    Epistrophe : Repetition of a word at the end of a clause, line, or sentence
    Symploce : Repetition of both beginnings and endings
    Epanalepsis : Repetition of the beginning at the end
    Anadiplosis : Repetition of the end of a line or clause at the next beginning
    Gradatio : Repeating anadiplosis
    Congeries : A heaping together and piling up of many words that have a similar meaning
    Antimetabole : Repetition of words, in successive clauses, in reverse grammatical order; a chiasmus on the level of words - AB-,-BA
    Pleonasm : The needless repetition of words; a tautology on the level of a phrase



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    Figures of Repetition - Clauses and Ideas



    Auxesis : Arrangement of clauses or sentences in ascending order of importance
    Isocolon : Repetition of phrases or clauses of equal length and corresponding grammatical structure
    Tautology : Needless repetition of the same idea in different words; pleonasm on the level of a sentence or sentences
    Chiasmus : Reversal of grammatical structures or ideas in sucessive phrases or clauses, which do not necessarily involve a repetition of words
    Antithesis : Repetition of clauses or ideas by negation
    Periphrasis : The replacement of a single word by several which together have the same meaning; a substitution of more words for less



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    Figures of Unusual Word Order



    Anastrophe : Arrangment by reversal of ordinary word order, usually confined to the transposition of two words only
    Hyperbaton : Departure from ordinary word order
    Hysteron Proteron : Reversal of temporal order
    Hypallage : A reversal of words which seems to change the sense
    Parenthesis : A word, phrase, or sentence inserted as an aside in a sentence complete by itself



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    Figures of Thought



    Adynaton : The impossibility of expressing oneself adequately to the topic
    Aporia : True or feigned doubt or deliberation about an issue
    Correctio : A correction or revision of previous words
    Prosopopoeia : Representing an imaginary or absent person as speaking or acting; attributing life, speech or inanimate qualities to dumb or inanimate objects
    Apostrophe : A diversion of discourse from the topic at hand to addressing some person or thing, either present or absent



    THE END




    من جد وجد ....... ومن سار على الدرب وصل

  2. #2
    مشرفة الاقسام الاكاديمية الصورة الرمزية تمارا احمد
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Jul 2011
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    افتراضي رد: Figures Of Speech

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