ʡ
ʡ .


.


...
.

.
ˡ .









.

Endocrine glands

( ) ductless
hormones ɡ
. .



:

1- pituitary gland

2- hypothalamus

3- pineal gland

4- thyroid gland

5- parathyroid glands

6- ( ) adrenal (suprarenal)

7- gonads ( ovary testis )

8- ( ) ( )

9- pancreas ( )

10- gastrointestinal mucosa

11- kidneys



ɡ
physiological signal ( )
neural signal. .



:

1- peptide or protein hormones

2- steroid hormones

3- amino acid-related hormones



prostaglandin leptin.


(Ý) prostaglandin


prostaglandins
local hormones ɡ . blood clotting reproductive function. tissue injuries. anti-inflammatory drugs. aspirin .



(ȝ) Leptin




obesity
ɡ
.