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الموضوع: Species of Bird

  1. #1
    مراقب عام الصورة الرمزية Eiman
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    افتراضي Species of Bird







    Birds are warm-blooded creatures that have feathers, wings, and, in most species, hollow bones!






    Albatross

    Blue Jay
    Canary
    Cassowary
    Chicken


    Condor

    Crane
    Crow
    Cuckoo
    Dodo
    Dove
    Duck
    Eagle
    Emu
    Falcon
    Finch
    Flamingo
    Goose
    Hawk
    Hummingbird

    Ibis

    Kingfisher

    Kookaburra



    Lark
    Lovebird
    Macaw
    Mockingbird
    Nightingale
    Osprey
    Ostrich
    Owl
    Parakeet
    Parrot
    Peacock
    Pelican
    Pheasant
    Pigeon
    Roadrunner
    Robin
    Seagull
    Swan
    Swift
    Toucan
    Turkey
    Vulture
    Woodpecker
    Wren





    Scientists believe that migrating birds fly in a V-formation to give every bird a clear line of sight, and make it easier (by breaking up wind currents) for all the birds to alternate between gliding and flying. When the bird at the front of the V gets tired, another one will come up to take his place.




    من جد وجد ....... ومن سار على الدرب وصل

  2. #2
    مراقب عام الصورة الرمزية Eiman
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    افتراضي رد: Species of Bird


    Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds allied to the procellariids, storm-petrels and diving-petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses). They range widely in the Southern Ocean and the North Pacific. They are absent from the North Atlantic, although fossil remains show they once occurred there too. Albatrosses are amongst the largest of flying birds, and the great albatrosses (genus Diomedea) have the largest wingspans of any living birds.





    Just the Facts: The albatrosses are a group of large to very large birds; they are the largest of the procellariiformes. Their bills are large, strong and sharp-edged, the
    upper mandibles terminating in large hooks. These bills are composed of several horny plates, and along the sides are the two "tubes," long nostrils that give the order
    its name.


    Beak or Nose?

    The tubes of all albatrosses are along the sides of the bill, unlike the rest of the Procellariiformes where the tubes run along the top of
    the bill. These tubes allow the albatros-
    ses to have an acute sense of smell,
    an unusual ability for birds. Like other Procellariiformes they use this olfactory ability while foraging in order to locate potential food sources.


    They Walk the Walk:

    The feet have no hind toe and the three anterior toes
    are completely webbed. The legs are strong for Procellariiformes, in fact, almost uniquely amongst the order in that they and the giant petrels are able to walk well
    on land.


    Tasteful Plumage:

    The adult plumage of most of the albatrosses is usually some variation of dark upper-wing and back, white undersides, often compared to that of a gull. Of these, the species range from the Southern Royal Albatross which is almost completely white except for the ends of the wings, to the Amsterdam Albatross which has an almost juvenile-like breeding plumage with a great deal of brown, particularly a strong brown band around the chest.


    Spanning Wings:

    The wingspans of the largest great albatrosses (genus Diomedea) are the largest of any bird, exceeding 340 cm (over 11 feet), although the other species' wingspans are considerably smaller. The wings are stiff and cambered, with thickened streamlined leading edges.





    Where the Albatross Roam: Most albatrosses range in the southern hemisphere from Antarctica to Australia, South Africa and South America. The need for wind in order to glide is the reason albatrosses are for the most part confined to higher latitudes; being unsuited to sustained flapping flight makes crossing the doldrums extremely difficult. The exception, the Waved Albatross, is able to live in the equatorial waters around the Galapagos Islands because of the cool waters of the Humboldt Current and the resulting winds.


    Dynamic Soaring: Albatrosses travel huge distances with two techniques used by many long-winged seabirds, dynamic soaring and slope soaring. Dynamic soaring enables them to minimize the effort needed by gliding across wave fronts gaining energy from the vertical wind gradient. Slope soaring is more straightforward: the albatross turns to the wind, gaining height, from where it can then glide back down to the sea.



    They Float Through the Air With the Greatest of Ease:

    Albatross have high glide ratios, around 1:22 to 1:23, meaning that for every meter they drop, they can travel forward 22 meters. They are aided in soaring by a shoulder-lock, a sheet of tendon that locks the wing when fully extended, allowing the wing to be kept up and out without any muscle expenditure, a morphological adaptation they share with the giant petrels.


    Sailors in the Sky: Albatrosses combine these soaring techniques with the use of predictable weather systems; albatrosses in the southern hemisphere flying north from their colonies will take a clockwise route, and those flying south will fly counterclockwise.
    Relaxing in the Clouds: Albatrosses are so well adapted to this lifestyle that their heart rates while flying are close to their basal heart rate when resting. This efficiency is such that the most energetically demanding aspect of a foraging trip is not the distance covered, but the landings, take-offs and hunting they undertake having found a food source.
    Who Needs Flapping? This efficient long-distance traveling underlies the albatross's success as a long-distance forager, covering great distances and expending little energy looking for patchily distributed food sources. Their adaptation to gliding flight makes them dependent on wind and waves, however, as their long wings are ill-suited to powered flight and most species lack the muscles and energy to undertake sustained flapping flight.





    من جد وجد ....... ومن سار على الدرب وصل

  3. #3
    مراقب عام الصورة الرمزية Eiman
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    افتراضي رد: Species of Bird

    The doves are the 308 species of near passerine birds in the order Columbiformes. The terms dove and pigeon are used interchangeably, although smaller species are more likely to be called doves.





    The species commonly referred to as the "pigeon" is the feral Rock Pigeon. Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short, slender bills with a fleshy cere.
    This family occurs worldwide, but the greatest variety is in the Indomalaya and Australasia ecozones. It is related to the extinct dodos. The young doves and pigeons are called "squabs." A person who keeps pigeons is called a "pigeon fancier."





    Their usually flimsy nests are made of sticks, and the two white eggs are incubated by both sexes. Doves feed on seeds, fruit and other soft plantstuff. Unlike most other birds, (but see flamingo), doves and pigeons produce "crop milk," which is secreted by sloughing off fluid-filled cells from the lining of the crop. Both sexes produce this highly nutritious substance to feed to the young.





    Symbolism:

    White doves, usually meaning domesticated Rock Pigeons, are a traditional Christian symbol of love and peace.
    A dove was supposed to have been released by Noah after the flood in order to find land; it came back carrying an olive branch, telling Noah that, somewhere, there was land. A dove with an olive branch has since then come to symbolize peace.
    In Christian iconography, a dove also symbolizes the Holy Spirit, in reference to Matthew 3:16 and Luke 3:22 where the Holy Spirit appeared as a dove at the Baptism of Jesus.
    Doves or other birds are sometimes released at Christian weddings. It should be noted that these birds, unless they are trained homing pigeons, cannot survive in the wild and will either starve to death or be easy prey for predators.
    Doves are often associated with the concept of peace and pacifism. They often appear in political cartoons, on banners and signs at events promoting peace (such as the Olympic games, at various anti-war/anti-violence protests, etc.), and in pacifist literature. A person who is a pacifist is sometimes referred to as a dove (similarly, in American politics, a person who advocates the use of military resources as opposed to diplomacy can be referred to as a hawk).
    Ironically, although sometimes ungratefully considered "pests" in big cities, common pigeons or Rock Pigeons have served humans in times of war as war pigeons, and have even been awarded war medals to honour their services to humanity. These include the carrier pigeons, Cher Ami, who received the French Croix de guerre for services during wartime, and who is now enshrined in the Smithsonian Institution, and G.I. Joe, who received the Dickin Medal for his role in preventing the bombing of an Italian village of over 1,000 people.


    Doves as food: Several species of pigeon or dove are used as food, and probably any could be; the powerful breast muscles characteristic of the family make excellent meat. In Europe the Wood Pigeon is commonly shot as a game bird, while Rock Pigeons were originally domesticated as a food species, and many breeds were developed for their meat-bearing qualities. The extinction of the Passenger Pigeon was at least partly due to shooting for use as food.
    Trivia
    * Doves can be trained and often are utilized in tricks and animal acts by magicians and showmen.
    * In the United States, "dove" is sometimes used as a street name for cocaine. Ecstasy pills are also sometimes referred to as "doves", due to a well-known "brand" of pills featuring
    an embossed dove.
    * Dove is a brand of American ice cream; their "Dove Bar", featuring a vanilla ice cream filling with a thin chocolate coating, is particularly well known.
    * A "pigeon" is an English slang word to refer to an uneducated, naive, or unsophisticated person: one that is easily deceived or cheated by underhanded means. To be referred to as a "pigeon" or a "dupe" suggests unwariness in the person deluded — especially used in the slang language of gambling. Etymology: from Middle French duppe.




    من جد وجد ....... ومن سار على الدرب وصل

  4. #4
    مراقب عام الصورة الرمزية Eiman
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    افتراضي رد: Species of Bird


    The Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) is a North American jay, a handsome bird with lavender-blue to mid-blue feathering from the top of the head to midway down the back. There is a pronounced crest on the head. The colour changes to black, sky-blue and white barring on the wing primaries and the tail. The bird has an off-white underside, with a black collar around the neck and sides of the head and a white face.






    Range: Blue Jays reside over a very large area on North America's east coast, from Newfoundland in the northeast to Florida in the southeast and westward to Texas and the mid-west and eastern Colorado in the north. It is mainly a bird of mixed woodland, including American beech and various oak species, but also of parks and gardens in some towns and cities. West of the Rockies, it is
    replaced by the closely related Steller's Jay.
    Although this bird is generally found year round through most of its range, some northern birds do move into the southern parts of the range. These birds migrate during the day.

    Diet: The Blue Jay searches for food on the ground and in trees, and has a varied diet, including acorns and beech mast, weed seeds, grain, fruits and other berries, peanuts, bread, meat, eggs and nestlings, small invertebrates of many types, scraps in town parks and bird-table food.


    Behavior: Its aggressive behavior at feeding stations as well as its reputation for occasionally destroying the nests and eggs of other birds has made the Blue Jay unwelcome at some bird feeders.


    Blue Jay Call: The Blue Jay’s call is typical of most jays that it is varied, but the most common sound is usually the alarm call, which is a loud, almost gull-like scream. There is also a high-pitched jayer-jayer call that increases in speed as the bird becomes more agitated.


    The Color Blue:

    As with other blue-hued birds, the Blue Jay's coloration is not derived from pigments, but is the result of light refraction due to the internal structure of the feathers; if a blue jay feather is crushed, the blue-ness disappears as the structure is destroyed. This is referred to as structural coloration.




    Any
    suitable tree or large bush may be used for nesting and both sexes build the nest and rear the young, though only the female broods them. There are usually 4-5 eggs laid and incubated over 16-18 days. The young are fledged usually between 17-21 days. Blue Jays typically form monogamous pair bonds for life.





    Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. The ducks are divided between several subfamilies listed in full in the Anatidae article. Ducks are mostly aquatic birds, mostly smaller than their relatives the swans and geese, and may be found in both fresh water and sea water.





    Features: The males (drakes) of northern species often have showy plumage, but
    this is moulted in summer to give a more female-like appearance, the "eclipse" plumage. Many species of ducks are temporarily flightless while moulting; they
    seek out protected habitat with good food
    supplies during this period. This moult typically precedes migration.


    Stylish Birds: Ducks are also kept for their ornamental value. Breeds have been developed with crests and tufts or striking plumage. Shows are held in which these birds can
    be displayed.


    Bird Confusion: Ducks are sometimes confused with several types of unrelated water birds with similar forms, such as loons or divers, grebes, gallinules, and coots.




    Feeding: Most ducks have a wide flat beak adapted for dredging. They exploit a variety of food sources such as grasses, grains and aquatic plants, fish, and insects. Some (the diving ducks) forage deep underwater; the others (the dabbling ducks) feed from the surface of water or on land.
    To be able to submerge easier, the diving ducks are heavier for size than dabbling ducks, and therefore have more difficulty taking off to fly. A few specialized species (the goosander and the mergansers) are adapted to catch large fish.


    Migration: Some duck species, mainly those breeding in the temperate and arctic Northern Hemisphere, are migratory, but others are not. Some, particularly in Australia where rainfall is patchy and erratic, are nomadic, seeking out the temporary lakes and pools that form after localised heavy rain.






    Duck Hunt: In many areas, wild ducks of various species (including ducks farmed and released into the wild) are hunted for food or sport, by shooting, or formerly
    by decoys. From this came the expression "a sitting duck" to mean "an easy target".


    Economic Uses: Ducks have many economic uses, being farmed for their meat, eggs, feathers and down feathers. They are also kept and bred by aviculturists and often displayed in zoos. Most domestic ducks were bred from
    the wild Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, but many breeds have become much larger than their wild ancestor, with a "hull length" (from base of neck to base of tail) of 30 cm
    (12 inches) or more and routinely able to swallow an adult British Common Frog, Rana temporaria, whole.


    Farming Ducks: Ducks have been farmed for hundreds of years. They are not as popular as the chicken because the latter has much more white, lean meat and are easier to keep confined. Nevertheless, the duck is a popular and well known farm bird.


    Ducks are farmed for their meat, eggs and down. Their eggs are bluey green to white depending on the breed. Ducks can be kept free range, in cages, or batteried. To be healthy, ducks should be allowed access to water, though battery ducks are often denied this. They should be fed a grain and insect diet.

    Its a popular misconception that ducks should be fed bread as it offers them no nutritional value and can be deadly when fed to developing ducklings.


    Trivia:

    In a wildlife pond, the bottom over most of the area should be too deep for dabbling wild ducks to reach the bottom, to protect bottom-living life from being constantly disturbed and eaten by ducks dredging.

    The sound made by some female ducks is called a "quack"; a common (and false) urban legend is that quacks do not produce an echo.
    Ducks and humor: In 2002, psychologist Richard Wiseman and colleagues at the University of Hertfordshire (UK) finished a year-long LaughLab experiment, concluding that, of the animals in the world, the duck is the type that attracts most humor and silliness; he said "If you're going to tell a joke involving an animal, make it a duck."
    The word "duck" may have become an inherently funny word in many languages because ducks are seen as a silly animal, and their odd appearance compared to other birds.


    In case You Hadn't Noticed:

    Ducks are closely related to swans and geese.







    من جد وجد ....... ومن سار على الدرب وصل

  5. #5
    مراقب عام الصورة الرمزية Eiman
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    افتراضي رد: Species of Bird


    The Canary (Serinus canaria) sometimes called the Island Canary, Wild Canary or Atlantic Canary is a small songbird which is a member of the finch family. This bird is native to Madeira and the Canary Islands. The word "Canary" is derived from the Latin canaria, "of the dogs", referring to the numerous wild dogs that inhabited the islands.

    The Canary is a domesticated form of the Wild Canary, (Serinus canaria) a small songbird in the finch family originating from Madeira and the Canary Islands.





    Weights and Measures: The wild canary is 12.5 to 13.5 cm long, yellow-green, with streaking on its back. It is larger, longer and less contrasted than its relative the Serin, and has more grey and brown in its plumage.

    Domestic Canaries: Canaries are generally divided into three main groups: Colorbred Canaries (bred for their many color mutations - Ino, Eumo, Satinette, Bronze, Ivory, Onyx, Mosaic, Brown, etc.), Type Canaries (bred for their shape and conformation - Border, Fife, Gloster, Gibber Italicus, Raza Española, Berner, Lancashire, Yorkshire, etc.), and Song Canaries (bred for their unique and specific song patterns - Spanish Timbrado, Roller, Waterslager (also known as "Malinois"), American Singer, Russian Singer, Persian Singer).




    A Canary's Home: The wild canary's habitat includes semi-open areas such as orchards and copses, where it nests in bushes or trees.


    Feathered Crooner: The song is a silvery twittering like the Goldfinch.

    History of the Domestic Canary: Canaries were first bred in captivity in the 1600s. They were brought over by Spanish sailors to Europe.

    Monks started breeding them and only sold the males (which sing). This kept the birds in short supply and drove the price up. Eventually Italians obtained hens and were able to breed the birds themselves. This made them very popular and resulted in many breeds arising and the birds being bred all over Europe.
    The same occurred in England. First the birds were only owned by the rich but eventually the local citizens started to breed them and, again, they became very popular. Many breeds arose through selective breeding.






    Canary in the Coal Mine:
    Miner's canaries were early forms of carbon monoxide detection in mines.

    Three or more canaries (or other small birds with high metabolism) were taken down new shafts, and if one or more exibited abnormal behavior, the parties determined that the shaft was unsafe.






    Best in Show: Canaries are judged in competitions every fall. Shows generally begin in October and November after the breeding season ends.

    Birds can only be shown by the person who raised them. They all have unique bands on their legs that indicate the year of birth, the unique band number, the club to which the breeder belongs. Song Canaries are judged later in the year (January).
    There are many canary bird shows all over the world. The world show (C.O.M.) is held in Europe each year and attracts thousands of breeders. As many as 20,000 birds are brought for competiton.


    Caring for Your Canary: Most bird veterinarians today recommend a diet of 80% canary pellets. Many breeders still use the canary seed mix available in pet shops. All canaries benefit from a supply of green food such as lettuce, dandelion leaves and nasturtium leaves. They can eat any produce you do, with the exception of avocado. Care should be taken to ensure leaves supplied are clean and have not been sprayed with any chemicals. Canaries also enjoy little bits of fruit, but be careful to offer only what the bird can eat in one sitting, or you may wind up attracting ants, or hornets.

    Fuel for Moulting: During the moulting period it is advisable to supplement their diet with egg food or nestling food (can be bought as a dry mix to which water is added until a crumbly but not soggy consistency is achieved. Some nestling or egg foods can be served dry, others are best served with a soak seed mix; this is a special mixture of seeds meant to be soaked, rinsed, and sometimes sprouted a little, before being served).


    How to Keep your Bird Happy: To ensure caged birds are happy, toys should be provided and swapped regularly to avoid boredom (which can lead to aggression and feather plucking). Most people keep males and females in separate cages, except during breeding season. When buying pet canaries, great care must be taken to ensure the right mix of sexes in a cage. A mistake could lead to the birds attacking each other, even to the extent that one may kill another.


    Solitary Bird: In general, pet canaries do not require companionship; the canary species is territorial, not social, and does not generally appreciate company in the same cage. It will be seen as an intruder, not as a companion, and although it might take up to two years or so, if they remain in a single cage all year round, usually one or the other will eventually die. A male and a female stand a better chance of getting along amicably, but all too often the less dominant bird will eventually die, although it may take some time.
    This is because the dominant bird will feel the need to constantly 'oversee' the less dominant bird of the two. It will never be able to eat, sleep, or drink its fill in peace, and eventually the stress will take its toll.


    Caged Companions:

    If a bird
    is present in the home and a companion
    is bought, it must be kept in a separate cage for at least couple of weeks,
    both for quarantine, and to
    ensure the birds get used to each other;
    the new bird can then gradually
    be introduced to ensure that no
    fighting ensues.



    A male and female will often get along reasonably well if introduced in this way, but should not be allowed to remain together all year round; each should have some privacy, during the period from midwinter until the start of breeding season in early spring, at the very least.


    Two males will very rarely be happy together, although keeping them permanently in separate cages will prompt them each to sing more than they probably would on their own - however a good recording of canary song will work equally well. A cage with a number of males may work as long as no female is present, but again, they should not be expected to live in peace all year round, and each should be separated into an individual cage during the spring/early summer breeding season at the very least.

    A Canary Can... Male canaries can mimic sounds such as telephone ring tones and door bell chimes but only if they hear these sounds while young. Canaries can be taught tricks over time but great patience is required as they are fairly timid birds. To get the birds to play with toys, toys must be safely constructed (no sharp edges or parts the bird's feet could become entangled upon).

    Caring for a Sick Canary: If pet canaries become ill they will rapidly lose weight and this is why it is essential to treat disease as quickly as possible. It is wise to have glucose powder and an eye dropper in store to administer drops of diluted solution via the beak if a canary stops eating. When a bird is sick, it puffs up its feathers to stay warm; give it gentle heat. You can often drape a heating pad over or under the cage, but be sure the bird can also get OUT of the heat if it wants.
    Canary Kryptonite... Common household hazards include fumes from the kitchen (cooking fumes and especially fumes from non-stick pans)- canaries should never be kept in a kitchen for this reason. They are also sensitive to smoke from cigarettes, aerosol sprays such as deodorant, air freshener and polish. Plug in air fresheners/ stand-alone fan fresheners are very toxic, as are some candles, especially scented ones (except unscented beeswax candles).
    Avoid placing a canary's cage where it is in a draft, or be in full glare of sunlight without any shade available. If you let your canary out to fly about for exercise, always cover mirrors and windows, as they may fly into them and break their neck.
    A number of houseplants/cut flowers are very poisonous to canaries (as are some herbs), so never let them nibble leaves of houseplants. Be very wary, as canaries love to eat greens of all kinds! Safe plants include spider plants, african violets and boston ferns. Clean water must be available for drinking and separate water should be made available for bathing.
    Bathing Birdies: Canaries love bathing and should be allowed to bathe often. Offer cold water for them to bathe in, as it improves their feather condition. Warm water, on the other hand, will help to strip essential oils from the feathers, and will encourage itching and picking, rather than preening. Plentiful time to bathe is especially important to a canary during the moult.



    It's Not Easy Being Green:

    Unlike their domesticated brethren, wild canaries have olive green feathers! In fact, the tiny songsters are difficult to spot in their native habitats they are well camouflaged in the trees.









    Eagles are large birds of prey, who inhabit mainly the Old World, with only two species (Bald Eagle and Golden Eagle) commonly found in North America, a few in South America three (White-bellied Sea Eagle, Little Eagle, Wedge-tailed Eagle) in Australia and the Philippine Eagle in the Philippine Archipelago. They are members of the bird order Falconiformes, family Accipitridae and belong to several different genera, not necessarily closely related to each other.


    House Proud:

    Bald eagles re-use nests year after year, constantly adding and extending them.



    Eagle in General: Like all birds of prey, eagles have very large powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs and powerful talons. They also have extremely keen eyesight to enable them to spot potential prey from a very long distance. This keen eyesight is primarily contributed by their extremely large pupils which cause minimal diffraction (spreading) of the incoming light.
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Bald Eagle
    Just the Facts:

    The Bald Eagle, also known as the American Eagle, is a bird of prey found in North America, most recognizable as the national bird of the United States. The species was on the brink of extinction in the USA late in the 20th century but now has a stable population and is in the process of being removed from the U.S. federal government's list of endangered species.
    Bald Eagle name: The bird gets both its common and scientific names from the appearance of the adult's head. The English name (Bald) refers to the white head feathers, and the scientific name is derived from Haliaeetus, the New Latin for "sea eagle," (from the Greek haliaetos) and leucocephalus, Greek for "white head," from leukos ("white") and kephale ("head").
    Bald Eagle's natural range: The Bald Eagle's natural range includes most of North America, including most of Canada, all of the continental United States, and northern Mexico. The bird itself is able to live in most of North America's varied habitat from the bayous of Louisiana to the Sonoran desert to the eastern deciduous forests of Quebec and New England. It can be a migratory bird but it also is not unheard of for a nesting pair to overwinter in a particular area.
    Bald Eagle Endangerment: Once a common sight in much of the continent, the Bald Eagle was severely affected by the widespread use of DDT in the mid-twentieth century. While the pesticide itself was not lethal to the bird, its exposure would either make an eagle sterile or inhibit its ability to lay healthy eggs: the eagle would ingest the chemical through its food and then lay eggs that were too brittle to withstand the weight of a brooding adult. By the 1960's there were fewer than 500 nesting pairs in the 48 contiguous states of the USA.
    Bald Eagle recovery: Currently the Bald Eagle is slowly but steadily recovering its numbers; it can be found in growing concentrations throughout the United States. and Canada, particularly near large bodies of water. The U.S. state with the largest resident population is Alaska; out of the estimated 100,000 Bald Eagles on Earth, half live there.
    The only Bald Eagle to be hatched outside North America was born on May 3, 2006 in a zoo in the German city of Magdeburg.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Golden Eagle
    Distribution: At one time, the Golden Eagle lived in temperate Europe, North Asia, North America, North Africa and Japan. In most areas this bird is now a mountain-dweller, but in former centuries it also bred in the plains and the forests. In recent years it has started to breed in lowland areas again (Sweden, Denmark).

    There was a great decline in Central Europe, and the Golden Eagle is now restricted to the higher central Appennine regions of Italy (Regional capital of Abruzzo is named after the latin/Italian word for eagle, L'Aquila) source, and the Alps.

    In Britain, there are about 420 pairs left in the Scottish highlands, and between 1969 and 2004 they bred in the English Lake District. In North America the situation is not as dramatic, but there has still been a noticeable decline.
    Falconry: In Central Asia, Golden Eagles sometimes are trained for falconry, and in Kazakhstan there are still hunters using these eagles in order to catch deer and antelopes.


    Mating: A pair of Golden Eagles remains together for life. They build several nests within their territory and use them alternately for several years. The nest consists of heavy tree branches, upholstered with grass.
    Nests: Old nests may be 2 metres (6.6 ft) in diameter and 1 metre (3.3 ft) in height, as the eagles enlarge their nests every year. If the eyrie is situated on a tree, supporting tree branches may break because of the weight of the nest.
    Eggs: The female lays two eggs between January
    and May (depending on the area). After 45 days the
    young hatch. They are entirely white and are fed
    for fifty days before they are able to make their first flight attempts and eat on their own. In most cases only the older chick, which takes most of the
    food, survives, while the younger one dies before leaving the eyrie.




    من جد وجد ....... ومن سار على الدرب وصل

  6. #6
    مراقب عام الصورة الرمزية Eiman
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    افتراضي رد: Species of Bird



    Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds allied to the procellariids, storm-petrels and diving-petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses). They range widely in the Southern Ocean and the North Pacific. They are absent from the North Atlantic, although fossil remains show they once occurred there too. Albatrosses are amongst the largest of flying birds, and the great albatrosses (genus Diomedea) have the largest wingspans of any living birds.




    Just the Facts: The albatrosses are a group of large to very large birds; they are the largest of the procellariiformes. Their bills are large, strong and sharp-edged, the
    upper mandibles terminating in large hooks. These bills are composed of several horny plates, and along the sides are the two "tubes," long nostrils that give the order
    its name.

    Beak or Nose? The tubes of all albatrosses are along the sides of the bill, unlike the rest of the Procellariiformes where the tubes run along the top of
    the bill. These tubes allow the albatros-
    ses to have an acute sense of smell,
    an unusual ability for birds. Like other Procellariiformes they use this olfactory ability while foraging in order to locate potential food sources.


    They Walk the Walk: The feet have no hind toe and the three anterior toes
    are completely webbed. The legs are strong for Procellariiformes, in fact, almost uniquely amongst the order in that they and the giant petrels are able to walk well
    on land.
    Tasteful Plumage: The adult plumage of most of the albatrosses is usually some variation of dark upper-wing and back, white undersides, often compared to that of a gull. Of these, the species range from the Southern Royal Albatross which is almost completely white except for the ends of the wings, to the Amsterdam Albatross which has an almost juvenile-like breeding plumage with a great deal of brown, particularly a strong brown band around the chest.

    Spanning Wings:
    The wingspans of the largest great albatrosses (genus Diomedea) are the largest of any bird, exceeding 340 cm (over 11 feet), although the other species' wingspans are considerably smaller. The wings are stiff and cambered, with thickened streamlined leading edges.





    Where the Albatross Roam: Most albatrosses range in the southern hemisphere from Antarctica to Australia, South Africa and South America. The need for wind in order to glide is the reason albatrosses are for the most part confined to higher latitudes; being unsuited to sustained flapping flight makes crossing the doldrums extremely difficult. The exception, the Waved Albatross, is able to live in the equatorial waters around the Galapagos Islands because of the cool waters of the Humboldt Current and the resulting winds.


    Dynamic Soaring: Albatrosses travel huge distances with two techniques used by many long-winged seabirds, dynamic soaring and slope soaring. Dynamic soaring enables them to minimize the effort needed by gliding across wave fronts gaining energy from the vertical wind gradient. Slope soaring is more straightforward: the albatross turns to the wind, gaining height, from where it can then glide back down to the sea.
    They Float Through the Air With the Greatest of Ease:

    Albatross have high glide ratios, around 1:22 to 1:23, meaning that for every meter they drop, they can travel forward 22 meters. They are aided in soaring by a shoulder-lock, a sheet of tendon that locks the wing when fully extended, allowing the wing to be kept up and out without any muscle expenditure, a morphological adaptation they share with the giant petrels.


    Sailors in the Sky: Albatrosses combine these soaring techniques with the use of predictable weather systems; albatrosses in the southern hemisphere flying north from their colonies will take a clockwise route, and those flying south will fly counterclockwise.


    Relaxing in the Clouds:
    Albatrosses are so well adapted to this lifestyle that their heart rates while flying are close to their basal heart rate when resting. This efficiency is such that the most energetically demanding aspect of a foraging trip is not the distance covered, but the landings, take-offs and hunting they undertake having found a food source.

    Who Needs Flapping? This efficient long-distance traveling underlies the albatross's success as a long-distance forager, covering great distances and expending little energy looking for patchily distributed food sources. Their adaptation to gliding flight makes them dependent on wind and waves, however, as their long wings are ill-suited to powered flight and most species lack the muscles and energy to undertake sustained flapping flight.


    Wind Beneath Their Wings: Albatrosses in calm seas are forced to rest on the ocean's surface until the wind picks up again. They also sleep while resting on the surface (and not while on the wing as is sometimes thought). The North Pacific albatrosses can use a flight style known as flap-gliding, where the bird progresses by bursts of flapping followed by gliding. When taking off, albatrosses need to take a run up to allow enough air to move under the wing to provide lift.
    Albatross Appetites: Albatrosses feed on squid, fish and krill by either scavenging, surface seizing or diving.





    Nest and Nestlings: Albatrosses are colonial, nesting for the most part on remote oceanic
    islands, often with several species nesting together.
    Pair bonds between males and females form over several years, with the use of ritualized dances, and will last for the life of the pair.
    A breeding season can take over a year from laying to fledging,
    with a single egg laid in each
    breeding attempt.





    Albatross in Danger:

    Of the 21 species of albatrosses recognized by the IUCN, 19 are threatened with extinction.

    Numbers of albatrosses have declined in the past due to harvesting for feathers, but today the albatrosses are threatened by introduced species such as rats and feral cats that attack eggs, chicks and nesting adults; by pollution; by a serious decline in fish stocks in many regions largely due to over fishing; and by long-line fishing.
    Long-line fisheries pose the greatest threat, as feeding birds are attracted to the bait and become hooked on the lines and drown. Governments, conservation organizations and fishermen are all working towards reducing this by-catch.
    What's in a Name? The name albatross is derived from the Arabic al-câdous or al-g.at,t,a-s (a pelican; literally, "the diver"), which traveled to English via the Portuguese form alcatraz ("gannet"). The OED notes that the word alcatraz was originally applied to the frigatebird; the modification to albatross was perhaps influenced by Latin albus, meaning "white", in contrast to frigatebirds which are black. The Portuguese word albatroz is of English origin.
    The Goonies: They were once commonly known as Goonie birds or Gooney birds, particularly those of the North Pacific. In the southern hemisphere, the name mollymawk is still well established in some areas, which is a corrupted form of malle-mugge, an old Dutch name for the Northern Fulmar. The name Diomedea, assigned to the albatrosses by Linnaeus, references the mythical metamorphosis of the companions of the Greek warrior Diomedes into birds.


    Legendary Birds: Albatrosses have been described as "the most legendary of all birds". An albatross is a central emblem in The Rime of the Ancient Mariner by Samuel Taylor Coleridge; a captive albatross is also a metaphor for the poète maudit in a poem of Charles Baudelaire. It is from the former poem that the usage of albatross as a metaphor is derived; someone with a burden or obstacle is said to have 'an albatross around their neck', the punishment given in the poem to the mariner who killed the albatross.
    In part due to the poem, there is a widespread myth that sailors believe it disastrous to shoot or harm an albatross; in truth, however, sailors regularly killed and ate them, but they were often regarded as the souls of lost sailors. More recently, they have become part of popular culture, for example, in a Monty Python sketch, or the song "Echoes" by Pink Floyd. In the movie Serenity, the character River was referred to
    as an albatross by The Operative, reflecting the widespread adoption of the word
    as a metaphor.
    Albatross Watching: Albatrosses are popular birds for bird watchers and their colonies popular destinations for ecotourists. Regular bird watching trips are taken out of many costal towns and cities, like Monterey, Kaikoura, Wollongong and Sydney, to see pelagic seabirds, and albatrosses are easily attracted to these sightseeing boats by the deployment of fish oil into the sea. Visits to colonies can be very popular; the Northern Royal Albatross colony at Taiaroa Head in New Zealand attracts 40,000 visitors a year, and more isolated colonies are regular attractions on cruises to sub-Antarctic islands.
    How Many? The albatrosses comprise between 13 and 24 species (the number of species is still a matter of some debate, 21 being the most commonly accepted number) in 4 genera. The four genera are the great albatrosses (Diomedea), the mollymawks (Thalassarche), the North Pacific albatrosses (Phoebastria), and the sooty albatrosses or sooties (Phoebetria).

    Of the four genera, the North Pacific albatrosses are considered to be a sister taxon to the great albatrosses, while the sooty albatrosses are considered closer to the mollymawks.
    Classification Confusion: The taxonomy of the albatross group has been a source of a great deal of debate. The Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy places seabirds, birds of prey and many others in a greatly enlarged order Ciconiiformes, whereas the ornithological organizations in North America, Europe, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand retain the more traditional order Procellariiformes. The albatrosses can be separated from the other Procellariiformes both genetically and through morphological characteristics, size, their legs and the arrangement of their nasal tubes (see Morphology and flight).
    Within the family the assignment of genera has been debated for over a hundred years. Originally placed into a single genus, Diomedea, they were rearranged by Reichenbach into four different genera in 1852, then lumped back together and split apart again several times, acquiring 12 different genus names in total (though never more than eight at one time) by 1965 (Diomedea, Phoebastria, Thalassarche, Phoebetria, Thalassageron, Diomedella, Nealbutrus, Rhothonia, Julietata, Galapagornis, Laysanornis, and Penthirenia).
    Recent research by Gary Nunn of the American Museum of Natural History (1996) and other researchers around the world studied the mitochondrial DNA of all 14 accepted species, finding that there were four monophyletic groups within the albatrosses. They proposed the resurrection of two of the old genus names, Phoebastria for the North Pacific albatrosses and Thalassarche for the mollymawks, with the great albatrosses retaining Diomedea and the sooty albatrosses staying in Phoebetria. Both the British Ornithologists' Union and the South African authorities split the albatrosses into four genera as Nunn suggested, and the change has been accepted by the majority of researchers.








    The Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) is the largest bird native to Australia, and the only extant member of the genus Dromaius. The Emu is the second-largest flightless bird in the world, after its ratite relative the Ostrich.





    Weights and Measures: Emus are large flightless birds that reach up to two metres (6.5 ft) in height (1–1.3 metres (3.2-4.3ft) at the shoulder) and weigh between 30 and 45 kilograms (66-100 pounds). They have small vestigial wings.

    A Runner's Body:
    Their ability to run at high speeds is due to their highly specialised pelvic limb musculature. Their feet have only 3 toes and similarly reduced number of bones and associated foot muscles; they are also the only birds with gastrocnemius muscles in the back of the lower legs. Compared with other birds the pelvic limb muscles of Emus have a similar contribution to total body mass as the flight muscles of flying birds.
    Plumage: Emus have brown to grey-brown plumage of shaggy appearance; the shafts and the tips of the feathers are black. Solar radiation is absorbed by the tips, and the loose-packed inner plumage insulates the skin. The resultant heat is prevented from flowing to the skin by the insulation provided by the coat, which allows the bird to be active during the heat of the day. A unique feature of Emu feathers is its double rachis emerging from a single shaft. The sexes are similar in appearance.



    Who Needs an Air Conditioner? On very hot days, the Emu pants to maintain body temperature: its lungs work as evaporative coolers and, unlike some other species, the resulting low levels of carbon dioxide in the blood do not appear to cause alkalosis. They must replenish their fluids by drinking every day; emus do not waste water: for normal breathing in cooler weather, they have large, multi-folded nasal passages. Cool air warms as it passes through into the lungs, extracting heat from the nasal region. On exhalation, the Emu's cold nasal turbinates condense moisture back out of the air and absorb it for reuse.

    Habitat & Migration: Emus live in most habitats across Australia. They are
    most common in areas of sclerophyll forest and savanna woodland, and least common
    in populated and very arid areas. In Western Australia, Emu movements follow a
    distinct seasonal pattern—north in summer and south in winter—but further east, their wanderings are more random. Emus
    are powerful swimmers, capable of crossing rivers—something they need to do from time
    to time as part of their wandering.

    Solitary Emu:
    Emus are largely solitary; they roam the continent searching for the best feeding areas, and although they can form enormous flocks, this is atypical social behavior that arises from a common need to move towards food sources.

    No Canary:
    Their calls consist of loud booming, drumming and grunting sounds that can be heard up to two kilometres away. The booming sound is created in an inflatable neck sac.

    Emu Eats:
    Emus forage in a diurnal pattern. They eat a variety of native and introduced plant species; the type of plants eaten depends of seasonal availability. They also eat insects, including grasshoppers and crickets, ladybirds, soldier and saltbush caterpillars, Bogong and cotton-boll moth larvae and ants. In Western Australia, food preferences have been observed in traveling Emus: they eat seeds from Acacia aneura until it rains, after which they eat fresh grass shoots and caterpillars; in winter they feed on the leaves of Cassia pods; in spring, they feed on grasshoppers and quandong fruit. Emus may serve as an important agent for the dispersal of large viable seeds, which may contribute to the maintenance of floral biodiversity in some areas.





    Summer Fling: Emus form breeding pairs during the summer months between December and January, and may remain together for about five months. Mating occurs in the cooler months between May and June. This varies in tropical Australia, where the seasons are reversed and it rains in summer; here, mating starts just before "the wet", and emus are reliably reported to delay mating if the season is late. The mechanism for this remains unknown.

    During the breeding season, males experience hormonal changes, including an increase in luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels, and their testes double in size. Males lose their appetite and construct a rough nest in a semi-sheltered hollow on the ground from bark, grass, sticks and leaves. The pair mate every day or two and every second or third day, the female lays.

    Emerald Eggs: On average, she will lay 11 very large, thick-shelled, dark-green eggs, but as many as 20 may be laid. The eggs are on average 134 x 89 millimeters (5.3 x 3.5 inches) and weight between 700 and 900 grams (1.5-2 pounds), which is roughly equivalent to 10 to 12 chickens eggs in volume and weight. The first demonstrated occurrence of genetically identical avian twins was demonstrated in the Emu.


    Mister Mom: The male becomes broody after his mate starts laying, and begins to incubate the eggs before the laying period is complete. From this time on, he does not eat, drink or defecate, and stands only to turn the eggs, which he does about 10 times a day. For the next eight weeks, he will survive on stored body-fat and on any morning dew he can reach from the nest, and will lose a third of his weight.

    Run-around Emu: As with many other Australian birds, such as the Superb Fairy-wren, infidelity is the norm for Emus, despite the initial pair-bond: once the male starts brooding, the female mates with other males and may lay in multiple clutches; thus, as many as half the chicks in a brood may be fathered by others, or by neither parent as Emus also exhibit brood parasitism. Some females stay and defend the nest until the chicks start hatching, but most leave the nesting area completely to nest again; in a good season, a female Emu may nest three times.
    Doting Father: Incubation takes 56 days, and the male stops incubating the eggs shortly before they hatch. Newly hatched chicks are active and can leave the nest within a few days. They stand about 25 centimetres tall and have distinctive brown and cream stripes for camouflage, which fade after three months or so. The male stays with the growing chicks for up to 18 months, defending them and teaching them how to find food. Chicks grow very quickly and are full-grown in 12 to 14 months; they may remain with their family group for another six months or so before they split up to breed in their second season. In the wild, emus live for about 10 years, and captive birds for more than twice that period.





    Three Times the Emu: Three different emu species were common in Australian before European settlement. The small emus—Dromaius baudinianus and D. ater—both became extinct shortly after; however, the Emu, D. novaehollandiae, is common. The population varies from decade to decade, largely at the behest of rainfall; it is estimated that the Emu population is 625,000–725,000, with 100,000–200,000 in Western Australia and the majority of remaining populations in New South Wales and Queensland. D. novaehollandiae diemenensis a subspecies known as the Tasmanian Emu became extinct around 1865. Emus were introduced in Maria and Kangaroo Islands near Tasmania in the 20th century and have established breeding populations there.
    There are three extant subspecies in Australia:
    D. novaehollandiae novaehollandiae—south-east Australia: white ruff when breeding.
    D. novaehollandiae woodwardi—northern Australia: thin, paler.
    D. novaehollandiae rothschildi—south-west Australia: dark, no ruff when breeding.
    First Contact: The species was first described under the name of the New Holland Cassowary in Arthur Phillip's Voyage to Botany Bay, published in 1789.The species was named by ornithologist John Latham, who collaborated on Phillp's book and provided the first descriptions of and names for many Australian bird species, its name is Latin for "fast-footed New Hollander." The etymology of the common name Emu is uncertain, but it thought to have come from an Arabic word for large bird, that was later used by Portuguese explorers to describe the related Cassowary in New Guinea.




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  7. #7
    مراقب عام الصورة الرمزية Eiman
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Jul 2011
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    الاردن - ماركا
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    14,750

    افتراضي رد: Species of Bird



    Cassowaries (genus Casuarius) are very large flightless birds native to the tropical forests of New Guinea and northeastern Australia. Some nearby islands also have small cassowary populations, but it is not known if these are natural or the result of the New Guinea trade in young birds.


    Lethal Weapon:

    A kick from a cassowary can be lethal. They have powerful legs and feet with inner toes that have sharp, dagger-like claws up to five inches in length--a formidable weapon.

    Fortunately, they are normally shy animals and will only kick when they feel threatened.



    Second Biggest: The Southern Cassowary is the second-largest bird in Australia and the third-largest remaining bird in the world (after the ostrich and emu). Adult Southern Cassowaries are 1.5 to 1.8 m (5½ feet) tall, although some may reach 2m, and weigh about 60 kilograms (130 pounds).

    Hard Headed: They have a bony casque on the head that is used to batter through underbrush, making them the only armoured bird in the world. Females are bigger and more brightly coloured.





    Shy Birds: The Northern and Dwarf Cassowaries are not well known.
    All cassowaries are usually shy, secretive birds of the deep forest, adept at disappearing long before a human knows they are there. Even the more accessible Southern Cassowary of the far north Queensland rain forests is not well understood.

    Fruit Fanatics:
    Cassowaries are frugivorous; fallen fruit and fruit on low branches is the mainstay of their diet. They also eat fungi, snails, insects, frogs, snakes and other small animals. Recently, they have also been spotted to attack humans, though this usually only occurs in self-defense when humans intrude upon the birds' territory or cause them to feel threatened.


    Claw and Casque:

    A cassowary's
    three-toed feet have sharp claws; the dagger-like middle claw is 120 mm (5 inches) long. This claw is particularly dangerous since the Cassowary can use it to kill an enemy, disemboweling it with a single kick. They can run up to 50 km/h (32 mph) through the dense forest, pushing aside small trees and brush with their bony casques. They can jump up to 1.5 m (5 feet) and they are good swimmers.

    Cassowaries in Danger:
    Southern and Northern Cassowaries are threatened species because of habitat loss; estimates of their current population range from 1500 to 10,000 individuals. About 40 are kept in captivity in Australia. Habitat loss has caused some cassowaries to venture out of the rainforest into human communities. This has caused conflict particularly with fruit growers. However, in some locations such as Mission Beach, Queensland, tourism involving the birds has been launched.

    Be Cassowary:

    The 2004 edition of the Guinness World Records lists the cassowary as the world's most dangerous bird. Normally cassowaries are very shy but when
    disturbed can lash out dangerously with their powerful legs.

    During World War II American and Australian troops stationed in New Guinea were warned to steer clear of the birds. They are capable of inflicting serious injuries on an adult human, even causing death, but these instances usually result from provocation by the human, or are due to the involvement of dogs; wounded or cornered birds are particularly dangerous. Humans are well advised to stay away from Cassowaries in their natural environment as the bird can easily outmaneuver even an armed person.

    Cassowaries, deftly using their surroundings to conceal their movements, have been known to out-flank organized groups of human predators. Cassowaries are considered to be one of the most dangerous animals to keep in zoos, based on the frequency and severity of injuries incurred by zookeepers.


    Be Very Cassowary: An unprovoked attack on a Papua New Guinea village has also been documented, but was the result of a bird previously raised in captivity being released into the wild. At least two people, a man and his mother, were confirmed to have died as a result of this attack. Another verified attack came when a careless zookeeper named Luke James, was brutally attacked and killed after not so subtly mocking the ferocity of the Cassowary at what was previously thought to be a safe distance.


    Be Really, Really Cassowary: More recently, Cassowaries have been known to lose their natural fear of man. As a result, large areas of Australian National Parks have been temporarily closed to avoid human contact with the bird.







    Emerald Eggs: Females lay three to eight large,
    pale green-blue eggs in each clutch. These
    eggs measure about 90 by 140 mm (3½ by 5½ inches) — only ostrich and emu eggs are larger.

    The female does not care for the eggs or the
    | chicks; the male incubates the eggs for
    two months, then cares for the brown-striped
    chicks for nine months.



    Cassowaries (from the Indonesian name kasuari) are part of the ratite group, which also includes the emu, rhea, ostrich, moa, and kiwi. There are three species:
    Southern Cassowary or double-wattled cassowary C. casuarius of
    Australia and New Guinea.
    Dwarf Cassowary C. bennetti of New Guinea and New Britain.
    Northern Cassowary C. unappendiculatus of New Guinea.



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