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  1. #1
      Eiman
    Jul 2011
    -
    14,750

    -


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    .......

  2. #2
      Eiman
    Jul 2011
    -
    14,750

    :

    :

    .


    - :
    :




    - (Sclera):
    .

    - (Choroid):
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    .

    - (Retina):
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    (Fovea) .

    - :
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    (Ciliary
    body):
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    - / (Eye lens/Crystalline lens):
    (Crystallins)
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    (Hyaloid artery). (Aqueous and vitreo
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    (Ciliary muscles)
    (Accommodation) .


    ɡ .

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    - (Eyebrow):
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    .


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    - (Intraocular pressure):
    .



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    - (Orbit):

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    ǡ
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    - (Collagen): (Connective tissues). 40% .
    : ɡ ( ) . .
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    1.5 (ganglion cells). (Fovea) (Cone cells) .
    . (Macular degeneration).

    * (Lacrimal apparatus):
    (Lacrimal gland) (Lacrimal canaliculi) (Lacrimal sac) . (Naso lacrimal duct) .



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    ( " ").

    2- (Medial rectus muscle):
    .

    3- (Superior rectus muscle):
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    4- (Interior rectus muscle):
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    5- (Superior oblique):
    .

    6- (Interior oblique):
    .


    :

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    - :
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    - (Sclera):
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    - / (Eye lens/Crystalline lens):
    (Crystallins)
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    (Ciliary muscles)
    (Accommodation) .


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    - (Pupil):
    ɡ .
    ѡ (Pupillary reflex) .
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    ѡ :
    ( ). ɡ ǡ .



    - (Eyebrow):
    . .


    - (Cornea):
    (Aqueous humour) .


    - (Anterior chamber):
    .


    - (Po
    sterior chamber):
    .

    - (Schlemm canal): ɡ " " .


    - (Intraocular pressure):
    .



    - (Aqueous humour):
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    - (Conjunctiva):
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    - (Orbit):

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    - (Eyelid):
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    - (Eyelash):
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    - (Collagen): (Connective tissues). 40% .
    : ɡ ( ) . .
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    - (Macula/Macula lutea):
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    . (Macular degeneration).

    * (Lacrimal apparatus):
    (Lacrimal gland) (Lacrimal canaliculi) (Lacrimal sac) . (Naso lacrimal duct) .



    * :
    1- (Lateral rectus muscle):
    ( " ").

    2- (Medial rectus muscle):
    .

    3- (Superior rectus muscle):
    .

    4- (Interior rectus muscle):
    .

    5- (Superior oblique):
    .

    6- (Interior oblique):
    .

    .......

  3. #3
      Eiman
    Jul 2011
    -
    14,750

    :

    ..



    . . ʡ DNA. ɡ . .

    :

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    .......

  4. #4
      Eiman
    Jul 2011
    -
    14,750

    :


    . 1- 2- 3- . ʡ .




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    .......

  5. #5
      Eiman
    Jul 2011
    -
    14,750

    :


    ==================

    :

    1- Central Nervous System "CNS" .
    2- Peripheral Nervous System .

    ( ) Neurone , , Glial Cells Neurons.

    Cell Body Axon , , () Dendrites Synapsis , Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine Adrenaline Noradrenaline.

    Axon . () Myelin Sheaths , Oligodendrocytes , Schwann Cells ().

    , Nucleus Ganglion , , ( "") Ganglion.
    Nerves, :

    1- Pre-Ganglionic Nerves.
    2- Post-Ganglionic Nerves.

    , ( ) . ( ) .

    Glial Cells (). , () . "" (Glia) ( ).

    :

    .
    .
    .
    , .
    () Ionic Composition ExtraCellular Fluids.

    , :

    1) Astrocytes:
    , Astro. . Glucose Lactate . Glycogen . () . (- Stroke).

    2) () Oligodendrocytes:
    Central Nervous System , Myelin Sheaths , ( ) ( ) . , .

    This image has been resized. Click this bar to view the full image. The original image is sized 600x300 and weights 69KB.

    3) Microglia :
    , . ( ).

    4) Schwann Cells :
    Peripheral Nervous System , ( ) . Lipids . ( ) . .

    This image has been resized. Click this bar to view the full image. The original image is sized 593x233 and weights 66KB.



    Brain Spinal Cord.
    :
    1) Cerebrum.
    2) Brainstem , Midbrain Pons Medulla Oblongata.
    3) Cerebellum.



    ( ) Cerebral Cortex Grey Matter White Matter , Nucleus Ganglion. ( ) ( ) .

    () Medial Longitudinal Fissure , Right Cerebral Hemisphere Left Cerebral Hemisphere. , Dominant Cerebral Hemisphere , . .
    Gyri Gyrus , .
    (4) , :

    1- Frontal Lobe , , , . Broca's Area Motor Aphasia . Precentral Gyrus Central Sulcus Motor Cortex , , . , .

    2- Parietal Lobe Postcentral Gyrus Sensory Cortex . .

    3- Temporal Lobe Superior Temporal Gyrus Supramarginal Gyrus Marginal Gyrus ( ) Dyslexia.

    4- Occipital Lobe , .

    This image has been resized. Click this bar to view the full image. The original image is sized 522x360 and weights 66KB.

    , , Corpus Callosum ( ) . Cingulate Gyrus Limbic system . () Lateral Ventricle , , Third Ventricle () Interventricular Foramen Foramina of Munro Fourth Ventricle Aqueduct of Sylvius . Central Canal ( ) CerebroSpinal Fluid.

    This image has been resized. Click this bar to view the full image. The original image is sized 600x400.

    , , .

    Midbrain Pons Medulla Oblongata Brainstem. Cerebellum , Superior Cerebellar Peduncle Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle. , . , . .



    , . Cranial Nerves Peripheral Nervous System :

    1- Olfactory Nerve .
    2- Optic Nerve .
    3- Oculomotor Nerve . Sympathetic Fibers ( ) Light reflex Accommodation Reflex .
    4- Trochlear Nerve, .
    5- Trigeminal Nerve , () .
    6- Abducens Nerve .
    7- Facial Nerve , ( ) Parasympathetic Fibers .
    8- Vestibulcochlear Nerve , .
    9- Glossopharyngeal Nerve , .
    10- Vagus Nerve Parasympathetic Fibers , . .
    11- Accessory Nerve .
    12- Hypoglossal Nerve .

    Click this bar to view the full image.

    , .

    , , .

    Spinal Cord Vertebral Canal Vertebral Column Cauda Equina. H Anterior Horn Posterior Horn () Lateral Horn , Motor Root , Sensory Root . , Spinocerebellar Tract , Spinothalamic Tract ( ) Thalamus . Corticospinal Tract .



    , , , . . () Spinal Segments , 31 :

    8 ( ) Cervical Segments (C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,C7,C8).
    12 Thoracic Segments (T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8,T9,T10,T11,T12).
    5 Lumbar Segments (L1,L2,L3,L4,L5).
    5 Sacral Segments (S1,S2,S3,S4,S5).
    1 Coccygeal Segment.

    () Spinal Nerves , , T1 Spinal Nerve T1 Spinal Segment.

    Click this bar to view the full image.

    () .

    3 :
    1) Pia Matter.
    2) Arachnoid Matter.
    3) Dura Matter.





    :

    1) Peripheral Motor Nerves .
    2) Peripheral Sensory Nerves .
    3) Cranial Nerves .
    4) Autonomous Nervous System . Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System.
    , Preganglionic Sympathetic Fibers T1 L2 , Sympathetic Chain Postganglionic Sympathetic Fibers . 11 Thoracic Ganglion 4 Lumbar Ganglion 4 Sacral Ganglion 3 .
    , , , .
    ( ). Sacral Segments
    ( S2,S3,S4) ( ).



    .
    .

    ݡ ɡ ɡ .





    :



    :

    1. (Nose):

    ӡ ѡ .


    2. (Larynx) :

    (Vocal Cords) ɡ (Epiglottis ) .

    3. (Trachea):

    ɡ ɡ ݡ ֡ :

    * .
    * ɡ ǡ ɡ .



    4. (Bronchioles):

    ѡ ѡ ޡ .


    5. (Alveoli):

    300 ɡ .

    ɡ ӡ .



    =================




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    1. .
    2. 12 16 .
    3. 6 ɡ 10 .
    4. 300 .
    5. 6 5 .
    6.


    .......

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