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: central nervous system

  1. #1

    Aug 2011
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    3,025

    central nervous system




    ( ) ɡ ( vertebralcolumn ) ( cerebrospinalfluid ) ɡ ( ventricles ) ͡ ( choroid plexus ) ( cranialnerves ) .
    :
    ( cerebrum ) ( diencephalon ) ( cerebellum ) ( brainstem ) .


  2. #2

    Aug 2011
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    3,025

    : central nervous system

    Nervous System
    .

    :
    :
    1- Central Nervous System "CNS" .
    2- Peripheral Nervous System .

    Neurone
    ( ) Neurone - :
    o Glial Cells
    o - Neurons

    - Neurons : ( )
    o Cell Body Axon
    o
    o () Dendrites Synapsis - Neurotransmitters - - Acetylcholine - Adrenaline - Noradrenaline.
    o Axon
    o () Myelin Sheaths
    o Oligodendrocytes
    o Schwann Cells ().
    o Nucleus Ganglion ( "") Ganglion.
    o Nerves :
    1- Pre-Ganglionic Nerves.
    2- Post-Ganglionic Nerves.

    o -- ( ) ----- ( ) .


  3. #3

    Aug 2011
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    3,025

    : central nervous system

    Glial Cells : ( )
    o ----- ()
    o --- () .
    o "" (Glia) ( ).

    :
    o .
    o .
    o .
    o .
    o () Ionic Composition ExtraCellular Fluids.

    :
    - :
    1) Astrocytes:
    o
    o Astro.
    o -- Glucose Lactate .
    o Glycogen .
    o ()
    o (- Stroke).

    2) () Oligodendrocytes:
    o Central Nervous System - Myelin Sheaths ,
    o ( ) ( ) --- .
    o - .


  4. #4

    Aug 2011
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    3,025

    : central nervous system

    3) Microglia :
    o
    o .
    o ( ).

    4) Schwann Cells :
    o Peripheral Nervous System
    o ( ) .
    o Lipids -- .
    o ( )
    o .
    o .


    :
    o Brain
    o Spinal Cord.

    :
    1) Cerebrum.
    2) Brainstem --- Midbrain Pons Medulla Oblongata.
    3) Cerebellum.
    Cerebrum :
    o ( ) Cerebral Cortex Grey Matter
    o --- --- White Matter
    o --- Nucleus Ganglion.
    o --- ( ) -- ( ) .
    o () Medial Longitudinal Fissure ----- --- Right Cerebral Hemisphere --- Left Cerebral Hemisphere.
    o ---
    o Dominant Cerebral Hemisphere ---- ---- .
    o .
    o Gyri Gyrus ---- ---- --- ---- .


  5. #5

    Aug 2011
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    3,025

    : central nervous system


    :
    (4) - :
    1. - Frontal Lobe :
    o
    o
    o ----- --- --- ----
    o Broca's Area --- ---- Motor Aphasia --- .
    o Precentral Gyrus Central Sulcus Motor Cortex --- --- ---
    o --- .

    2. Parietal Lobe :
    o Postcentral Gyrus --- Sensory Cortex ---
    o .

    3. Temporal Lobe :
    o Superior Temporal Gyrus
    o Supramarginal Gyrus Marginal Gyrus ---- ----- ( ) Dyslexia.

    4. Occipital Lobe
    o --- .
    ο
    - - Corpus Callosum ( ) - Cingulate Gyrus Limbic system .

    ( ) CerebroSpinal Fluid :
    o () Lateral Ventricle - -
    o Third Ventricle () Interventricular Foramen Foramina of Munro
    o Fourth Ventricle Aqueduct of Sylvius .
    o Central Canal
    o ( ) CerebroSpinal Fluid.


  6. #6

    Aug 2011
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    3,025

    : central nervous system


    o o o o .
    Brainstem
    o Midbrain - Pons - Medulla Oblongata
    o Cerebellum
    o Superior Cerebellar Peduncle Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle.
    o - .
    o - .
    o .
    o
    o .
    Cranial Nerves
    Peripheral Nervous System - :
    1. Olfactory Nerve .
    2. Optic Nerve .
    3. Oculomotor Nerve ---- Sympathetic Fibers ( ) Light reflex Accommodation Reflex .
    4. Trochlear Nerve---- .
    5. Trigeminal Nerve -- () .
    6. Abducens Nerve --- .
    7. Facial Nerve ---- ( ) - Parasympathetic Fibers .
    8. Vestibulcochlear Nerve -- .
    9. Glossopharyngeal Nerve --- - .
    10. Vagus Nerve - - Parasympathetic Fibers - - .
    11. Accessory Nerve - .
    12. Hypoglossal Nerve - .


  7. #7

    Aug 2011
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    3,025

    : central nervous system

    - - .

    --- - --- -- .

    Spinal Cord
    o Vertebral Canal Vertebral Column Cauda Equina---
    o H Anterior Horn Posterior Horn () Lateral Horn
    o
    o Motor Root ----
    o ---- Sensory Root
    o .
    o - Spinocerebellar Tract - Spinothalamic Tract ( ) Thalamus .
    o --- Corticospinal Tract .
    o -
    o - .
    o - .
    o () Spinal Segments -
    31 :
    o 8 ( ) Cervical Segments (C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,C7,C8).
    o 12 Thoracic Segments (T1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,T8,T9,T10,T11,T12).
    o 5 Lumbar Segments (L1,L2,L3,L4,L5).
    o 5 Sacral Segments (S1,S2,S3,S4,S5).
    o 1 Coccygeal Segment.

    () Spinal Nerves - - T1 Spinal Nerve T1 Spinal Segment.
    ()
    3 :
    1) Pia Matter.
    2) Arachnoid Matter.
    3) Dura Matter.

    Peripheral Nervous System
    :
    1) Peripheral Motor Nerves - .
    2) Peripheral Sensory Nerves - - - - - - --- .
    3) Cranial Nerves ---- .
    4) System Autonomous Nervous - - - - -

    System Autonomous Nervous
    :
    1. Sympathetic Nervous System
    o
    o Preganglionic Sympathetic Fibers T1 L2
    o - Sympathetic Chain - Postganglionic Sympathetic Fibers .
    o 11 Thoracic Ganglion - 4 Lumbar Ganglion - 4 Sacral Ganglion 3 .
    o - - - - - - - -

    2. Sympathetic Nervous System
    o .
    o ---- - - - - - - ( ).
    o Sacral Segments - - ( S2,S3,S4) ( ).


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